TOBAR NA GAEDHILGE 1.9

Ciarán Ó Duibhín, 2016/08/30
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What it does
    • What the results may look like
    • What Gaelic texts can be searched
    • Requesting Gaelic words
    • More about what to search for in a Gaelic index
    • Searching in other languages
    • Translation equivalents
Installation
History
New this time
The texts in detail
Keyboard layouts
Miscellaneous

What it does

Tobar na Gaedhilge is a searchable textbase of high-quality 20th-century Gaelic texts (mostly Irish, with some Scottish), best described as "continuity Gaelic" in its several naturally-occurring varieties. The textbase contains over 5.0 million words of Gaelic text, and is freely downloadable for installation on a personal computer under MS Windows.  After the software is installed, a word may be requested, and examples of its use may be viewed. The purpose of Tobar na Gaedhilge is to allow the texts to be used as a lexical and grammatical resource. To protect the rights of the authors and publishers, the texts are not made available in continuously readable form.

A summary of some of the user-friendly features of the system:
• texts are grouped into collections, each for a particular naturally-occurring variety of Gaelic
• a complete pick-list of the words in the chosen collection is presented on-screen
• words are listed with initial mutations removed, eg. fear, fhear, bhfear are all grouped under fear; while athair, h-athair, n-athair, t-athair are all grouped under athair
• words are listed with enclitics separated, eg. d'ith is listed under d' and ith; agamsa is listed under agam and sa
• apostrophes are distinguished from quotation marks and are retained in words, eg. 'ach is not conflated with ach
• words split at end-of-line in the original text are rejoined in the list, where appropriate
• collocations of words may be found, either in immediate sequence, or within a sentence-like unit
• an analytic approach is taken to compound words, eg. sean-amhrán is treated as a sequence of sean, -, and amhrán
• accents may optionally be disregarded, eg. comhartha may be made to retrieve both comhartha and cómhartha
• an asterisk may be used as a wild-card to match all or part of a word, eg. beir* or *stin
These features were designed into the program from the beginning, and the texts were prepared with the markup necessary to support them.

This product is completely free of adware, spyware or other harmful inclusions.

In addition, the textbase contains translations of some of the Gaelic texts into English, French, German and Russian. These will be collectively referred to as other languages. Retrieved segments of Gaelic text may also be displayed in these other languages, if the translations are stored; and further, the words of these languages may also be used to search the textbase.

• What the results may look like

We may begin by finding sentences containing a selected Gaelic word, and we will do one example each from the Munster, Connacht and Scottish texts. Thereafter, we will draw our examples from the Ulster texts, which form by far the largest part of the material stored.

Note that some of these screenshots may be from pre-current versions of the system.

Figure 1: We looked for examples in the Munster texts of the word cábóg (a country person). We found two examples in Pádraig Ua Maoileoin, Na hAird Ó Thuaidh, and we show the second example here. Page and line reference is given to the published book.

Screenshot of Munster sentence view

The navigation panel (at upper right) allows us to move around the retrieved examples. The panel at the lower right allows the form in which the sentence is displayed to be modified. All the options are described under Figure 6 below.

Figure 2: We looked for examples in the Connacht texts of the sequence of words lúb gaoil (blood relationship), and we found two examples, both in Séamus Mag Uidhir, Fánaidheacht i gConndae Mhuigheo. We show the first sentence here.

Screenshot of Connacht sentence view

Figure 3: We looked for examples in the Scottish texts of words beginning with càr. With a request like this for words matching a general pattern, clearly more than one word may match — we refer to this situation as matching a disjunction of words. The sentences for each matching word are presented (over all the relevant books) before presenting the sentences for the next matching word. Here, we show a sentence containing the matching word càraich (fix).

Screenshot of Scottish sentence view

Besides viewing complete sentences as above (Display option: Abairteacha), two other ways of viewing results  are provided, which are more compact for large quantities of text. Output from these methods is shown in the next two figures.

Figure 4: Uses of the word saoghal (life) shown as its frequency (Display option: Minicidheacht) in the various Ulster texts.

Screenshot of frequency view

Scrolling may be necessary to reveal the information for all the texts. If the request matched a disjunction of words, a menu option AthFhocal (next word) will proceed to the next matching word. A menu option Réidh (finished) leaves the displayed results and returns to the search screen.

Figure 5: A keyword-in-context index (Display option: KWIC) of the word-form athair (father) in Séamus 'ac Grianna, Thiar i dTír Chonaill. The first batch of 43 occurrences is shown.

Screenshot of concordance view

The navigation panel at the upper right allows several options. First of all, we may move up and down through the concordance lines, which are in screenfuls of a size which depends on the size of the window (43 lines in this illustration). We may move down a screenful (Síos), up a screenful (Suas), to start of text (Suas go bárr), to end of text (Síos go bun). However, these options will not take us into another text, nor (if the request matched several word in a disjunction) will they take us into another matching word; they move only within the current text, for the current matching word.

Second, we may move, forwards only, through the entire collection: AthShlámán (next batch of examples from the current book), AthLeabhar (next book for the current matching word), AthFhocal (next matching word, if the request matched several in disjunction), Réidh (finished). If we wish to examine all the examples from the beginning again, we need only choose Réidh and then click OK without altering our previous choices. This second set of options are provided with keyboard shortcuts, which may prove convenient for repeated use.

Cóipeáil (copy) copies the current display to a textfile, which by default, is called samplaí.txt and is placed in the My Documents folder, and the copied material is appended to it. Comhad Cóipeála (copy file) allows the name and location of the file to be changed, and also the mode from append to overwrite (but it will revert to appending after overwriting once).

Réidh (finished) leaves the displayed results and returns to the search screen.

Figure 6: Returning now to display by sentences, we give an example of the word oidhreógach (ice) from the Ulster texts. The example shown is from Seosamh 'ac Grianna, Pádraic Ó Conaire agus Aistí Eile.

Screenshot of sentence view

The panel at the lower right allows the text of the sentence to be shown in a choice of ways: plain and uncorrected (Foillsighthe); plain but corrected (Lom); including mark-up (Marcáilte); or as a list of the words by which it is indexed (Innéacsáilte). The Innéacsáilte option allows you to see which index terms will fetch this sentence. This will allow you to examine how the text has been tokenized and indexed. The panel also controls the display of the sentence in other languages, when this is possible (see later) — any language with its name shown in in italics is unavailable for this sentence. The choice of display modes applies only to the first language, i.e. the language of the index used; for other languages, the text is shown plain.

To explain what is meant by "correction": this is limited to obvious errors. An isolated spelling variant which is at odds with consistent usage in the rest of the same book may also be corrected; but beyond this, we make no attempt at normalization of forms which are not clearly in error. Corrections to Gaelic text may also include restoring the wording of the manuscript where known. And correction of a text in a language other than Gaelic may be used to bring that text closer to the edition used by the Gaelic translater. None of these correction processes can be guaranteed to have been applied exhaustively. The corrections are applied to the indexes; and to the displayed sentences under the Lom option. The uncorrected book text will always be displayed under the Foillsighthe option.

As an example, the misprint cómhhartha occurs in Ben-Hur on page 337, and should clearly be corrected and indexed as cómhartha. So if we search for cómhartha, we will find the relevant sentence, and if we view it under the default Lom option, we will see the token as cómhartha. But if viewed under the Foillsighthe option, we will see it, uncorrected, as cómhhartha. Under the Marcáilte option, we will see the complete markup as cómh[h]artha. And under the Innéacsáilte option, we will see it confirmed that the token is indexed as cómhartha.

The navigation panel at the upper right allows several options.

First of all, we may move around the examples. We may move down a sentence (Síos), up a sentence (Suas), to start of text (Suas go bárr), to end of text (Síos go bun). However, these options will not take us into another text, nor (if the request matched several words in a disjunction) will they take us into another matching word; they move only within the current text, for the current matching word.

Second, we may move, forwards only, through the whole collection: AthAbairt (next sentence for the current book), AthLeabhar (next book for the current matching word), AthFhocal (next matching word, if the request matched several in disjunction), Réidh (finished). If we wish to examine all the examples from the beginning again, we need only choose Réidh and then click OK without altering our previous choices. This second set of options are provided with keyboard shortcuts, which may prove convenient for repeated use.

Cóipeáil (copy) copies the current display to a textfile, which by default, is called samplaí.txt and is placed in the My Documents folder, and the copied material is appended to it. Comhad Cóipeála (copy file) allows the name and location of the file to be changed, and also the mode from append to overwrite (but it will revert to appending after the first copy). The darker elongated panel shown above is the result of clicking Comhad Cóipeála.

Réidh (finished) leaves the displayed results and returns to the search screen.

If you accidentally lose the navigation panel from the screen while examining the results, a reminder labelled Preab-liosta! will appear from underneath it.  Clicking on this reminder will recover the navigation panel.

Multi-word retrievals may require the creation of workfiles. These will be placed in the temporary workspace folder, if possible. In the unlikely event that this is not possible, you will be prompted for the name of a folder to hold workfiles; you could, for example, place them on a memory stick.

In displaying results by sentence, the translation of the sentence into other languages may be shown, if it is stored. To do this, tick the names of the desired languages, visible on the sentence-level displays above, labelled Béarla (English) and Fraincis (French) and Gearmáinis (German) and Rúisis (Russian). If the name of the language is italicised, this means that a translation in that language is not available for the sentence to be displayed. At present, translations or originals are held only for texts in the Ulaidh collection, and only for a proportion of this: English, 42%; French, 21%; German, 11%; Russian, 1.5%

Figure 7: Sentences containing the word creafadaigh (shaking); the first of two examples found in Seosamh 'ac Grianna, Seideán Bruithne/Amy Foster. English and French translations are available and are shown.

Screenshot of Gaelic sentences with translations

When a sentence is shown in several languages, the choice of display mode between plain (Lom); including mark-up (Marcáilte); as a list of the word-forms by which it is indexed (Innéacsáilte); or plain and uncorrected exactly as printed (Foillsighte) applies only to the language of the index used. In other languages the sentence is shown plain.

The page and line number is shown for the displayed sentence, and this has recently been extended to apply to each language in which the sentence is displayed, rather than only to the first language. The page and line number are taken from the edition used, and they can be displayed only if the computer-readable version of the text is paginated — see the list of texts below for this information. All the Gaelic texts are paginated, but some in other languages, which have been obtained from various sources, may not be paginated.

• What Gaelic texts can be searched

Gaelic is found in several slightly different forms, and the texts are organized into collections to reflect this and to keep each collection fairly homogeneous in language.  The five collections supplied are (as of 2016/08/30):

  • Ulaidh (Ulster)           Index: Gaedhilg. 17 authors;  66 books;  51,299 word-forms;  4,264,072 word-tokens
  • Connachta                 Index: Gaedhilge.  8 authors;  10 books;  22,983 word-forms;    406,315 word-tokens
  • Mumhain (Munster)  Index: Gaolainn.   5 authors;   5 books;  11,094 word-forms;    161,908 word-tokens
  • Alba (Scotland)          Index: Gàidhlig.    4 authors;   5 books;    8,025 word-forms;   115,996 word-tokens
  • Oirthear (Eastern)     Index: Gaodhlag.   2 regions;    3 books;    8,698 word-forms;  104,844 word-tokens

At the present stage of development, the Ulaidh collection is much larger than any of the others.

A different division into collections would, of course, be possible.

The identities of the texts in all collections are listed in full below.

Searching may be restricted to any chosen subset of the texts of a collection, by deselecting temporarily individual texts or authors.

Each collection has a pre-compiled index associated with it, made from the words found in the relevant books, and in which requests for words are looked up. The statistics just given for the collections refer to these indexes — indexes of words found in the Gaelic texts. This does not mean that the words in the index are exclusively Gaelic words; rather they will reflect faithfully what the Gaelic texts contain.

Much more detail will be given later about what may be found in the indexes.

 

Figure 8: This is the program's opening screen, and the first task is to choose the desired collection and index.

Screenshot of opening screen

The program should show a list of the available collections, as in blue above — together with some statistics of the highlighted collection (below) and a pick list of its index (on the right). If there are no collections listed, you may be in the wrong folder, and you can browse (using Cuirtear Lorg) to a different folder. The indexes available to the highlighted collection are shown in brown. When you have marked the desired collection and chosen your index to it, click on Isteach to enter the collection/index.

Amach is to exit the program.

Treoir is for help. The help file supplied with Tobar na Gaedhilge is in Windows Help format (.hlp). Support for Windows Help File format was discontinued by Microsoft in Windows Vista and later. In order to use Windows Help files in these versions of Windows, download and install the Microsoft upgrade of WinHlp32.exe for your version of Windows from http://support.microsoft.com/kb/917607

• Requesting Gaelic words

When a collection has been selected, and Isteach clicked, the display changes to that shown in the next figure, which allows you to type words, among other things.

Figure 9: Requesting Gaelic words.

Screenshot of requesting words

Before entering our own words, however, first notice that this screen allows you to go back and change to a different collection and index, by using the Athruigh button on the Cnuasacht panel. And also, that you may see which authors and books are included in the current collection and index by using the Athruigh button on the Leabharthaí panel, and you may choose to select temporarily a subset of those books. (Note that selecting a subset of a collection is not reflected in the pick-list of words, which remains that for the whole collection.)

From the Radharc panel, you may choose your display mode for the results: frequencies (Minicidheacht), a keyword-in-context concordance (KWIC) or sentences (Abairteacha). Samples of each form of results have already been shown above.

And now we come to the Focal panel, where the desired word or words may be typed into the box provided, or may be inserted there by double-clicking them on the pick list, which is a displayed segment of the collection's index. The pick list accommodates itself to the existing contents of the box, as a guide to what words are available.

As an alternative to typing it into the box, a search word may also be chosen by double-clicking it on the pick list, or it may be pasted from the Windows clipboard (Ctrl/V).  The new search word will be appended to anything already in the box (and which is not selected); if the existing material in the box is already selected — which is the default — the new search word will replace it. TIP: when working between the word-form box and the picklist, you can cycle the focus around these and the other screen items by repeatedly pressing the TAB key. While an item has focus, any content which is selected will be visibly highlighted.

In the word-form box you may put:
• a word, such as oidhreógach or saoghal or athair, as used in our previous examples
• two or more words occurring together, either consecutively or within the same sentence (eg. lúb gaoil)
• any word may contain a wild-card (*), that is, an asterisk which matches any number of letters, including none.  For example, all words with a particular stem may be sought (eg. beir*), or all words with a particular termination (eg. *stin).

If the words box contains more than one word (ie. there is a space within it), you are asked to choose between seeking the words directly adjacent and in the given order; or within the same sentence in any order.

It is even possible to give one or more of the words as simply the asterisk (*), which matches any word; the search is then assumed to be a consecutive one. (But avoid giving * as the final word, as the search will be slow.) As we will see below (under demutation) a hyphen is, in most circumstances, counted as a separate word, so search for sean-bhean as three words: sean - bean (as well as sean bean and seanbhean to cover any unhyphenated instances).

You may tick the Gan beinn ar an tsíneadh fhada checkbox if you want to include words which differ from that requested only by the presence or absence of an accent, eg. comhradh with this checkbox ticked will match comhrádh, cómhradh and cómhrádh as well. For applicable languages, ticking this box also includes words which differ from that requested:
• by the presence of ANY accent;
• by a difference of CASE, though case differences are already removed in forms indexes other than German;
• by the intrusion of certain non-alphanumeric characters, such as £, %, period (indicating abbreviation), apostrophe (indicating elision), hyphen (indicating anonymisation), etc. For example, 2 will retrieve also £2 or 2% or or ; but note that many Gaelic words containing apostrophes or hyphens are already treated as compounds and indexed as two or more separate parts, as explained under decompounding below.

To type accented vowels, use your normal method of doing this under Windows. For information about keying accented letters under Windows, look here, or see the section "Keyboards layouts" near the end of this file. (But you will not require the support for dotted consonants offered by these keyboards, as lenition is always indicated by suffixing the letter h in Tobar na Gaedhilge.)

When all this is complete, you may click the OK button to produce the results.

Further hints on the selection of search words will come in the next section of this document.

• More about what to search for in a Gaelic index

Here are some pointers regarding what kinds of words are worth requesting.

When a word is requested, it is matched against a pre-compiled index of words from the chosen collection.  A scrolling alphabetic listing of the current index is shown, and will indicate what words are available. For Gaelic, this index consists of words which are aggregated in a number of ways to increase coverage:

• lowercased: the words in a Gaelic index have been converted to lowercase by replacing any capital letters by small letters; this even applies to proper names. Any capital letters you include in your request will also be so converted.

• decliticised: common enclitics, such as d' in d'ól, or 's in 'seadh, or -sa in agam-sa, are treated as separate words in the index (d' + ól; 's + eadh; agam + - + sa), and should also be detached in your request. Enclitics are normally signalled in running text by a hyphen or an apostrophe. But when there is no overt signal in similar cases (eg. agamsa, seadh), the splitting in the index will have been performed manually and is unlikely to have been exhaustive.

A number of common contracted words have been indexed under their parts, e.g. 'na (from ina) under ' and a; 'na (from chun an) under 'n and a'; 'na (from chun na) under ' and na; ab (from a ba) under a and b, or under a and b'; gurab under gur and a and b; and many other similar cases. This aspect is to be made more rigorous.

• decompounded: very few words containing a hyphen have been admitted to the indexes — a list of these can be obtained by searching for *-*. Rather, most hyphenated words have been treated atomistically in the indexes, and are found by seeking their parts, including the hyphen, eg. leith-phighinn by seeking the three items leith and - and pighinn, with checking of the "consecutive" option ("Díreach i ndiaidh a chéile").

• demutated: initial mutations are removed from words in the index; so, for example, fear, fhear and bhfear are all indexed as fear, while t-olc, n-olc and holc are all indexed as olc—but, where the mutation is permanent, it is retained, e.g. chugam, thart (in one of its senses), (go) dtí. You may have noticed the benefits of demutation and decliticisation in our athair example above. An initial mutation does not leave any trace in the index; and this is also true of any hyphen which is nothing but part of an initial mutation. When typing words of Gaelic to be searched for, remember to remove initial mutations, unless they are a permanent part of the word. Removal of initial mutations may seem counter-intuitive when requesting a sequence of words (eg. ár athair), but it is nonetheless required.

But the words in a Gaelic index are not lemmatized, i.e. terminally inflected forms, such as fear, fir, feara, must be searched for separately—although the wild card may often be used to advantage to retrieve the several related forms.

Finally, note that the index which will be searched is based on the words of the text which have been subjected to a limited and controlled degree of correction, as explained just below Figure 6 above.

• Searching in other languages

As well as searching the textbase for Gaelic words, indexes have been created in four additional languages, based on the words found in translations or originals in these languages of some of the Gaelic texts. As stated earlier, these translations/originals are at present confined to the Ulaidh collection, and cover only a proportion of it: Béarla (English), 42%; Fraincis (French), 21%; Gearmáinis (German), 11%. There is also a tiny amount of Russian, 1.5%.

Note that the Gaelic text is considered pivotal. Consequently, substantial amounts of material absent from a Gaelic text will not be included in other language versions of that text either. For example, the Gaelic translation of Turgenev's Записки охотника contains only about half the stories in the original, and only these stories will be included in other languages.

Figure 10: Search of the English index of the Ulaidh collection for the word bunch. An example is shown from Ben-Hur, and the English and Gaelic and French and German of the sentence is displayed.

Screenshot of English sentences with translations

Figure 11: Search of the French index of the Ulaidh collection for the word accroché. An example is shown from Iascaire Inse Tuile, and the French and Gaelic and English and German of the sentence is displayed.

Screenshot of French sentences with translations

Figure 12: Search of the German index of the Ulaidh collection for the word Knurren. An example is shown from Scairt an Dúthchais, and the German and Gaelic and English and French of the sentence is displayed.

Screenshot of German sentences with translations

Figure 12a: Search of the Russian index of the Ulaidh collection for the word лошадь. An example is shown from Scéalta Sealgaire, and the Russian and Gaelic and English of the sentence is displayed.

Screenshot of Russian sentences with translations

To search using another language, select the Ulaidh collection, and then the appropriate language. You will then have a further choice between Foirmeacha (word-forms) and Lemmata (lemma-types), because a rough and ready lemmatization has been applied to the English, French, German and Russian texts, resulting in two indexes for each of these languages. The statistics for these indexes are, at 2016/08/30:

  • Ulaidh (Ulster)           Index: Béarla (foirmeacha). 7 Gaelic writers; 18 books;     40,243 word-forms;    1,787,281 word-tokens
  •                                   Index: Béarla (lemmata).  7 Gaelic writers;   18 books;   31,476 lemma-forms;    1,782,949 lemma-tokens
  •                                   Index: Fraincis (foirmeacha). 3 Gaelic writers;  9 books;    34,726 word-forms;    869,663 word-tokens
  •                                   Index: Fraincis (lemmata).  3 Gaelic writers;   9 books;    16,520 lemma-forms;    867,835 lemma-tokens
  •                                   Index: Gearmáinis (foirmeacha). 3 Gaelic writers;  6 books;   38,259 word-forms;   492,906 word-tokens
  •                                   Index: Gearmáinis (lemmata).  3 Gaelic writers;   6 books;    23,661 lemma-forms;   490,769 lemma-tokens
  •                                   Index: Rúisis (foirmeacha). 2 Gaelic writers;  3 parts of books;  16,256 word-forms;   63,935 word-tokens
  •                                   Index: Rúisis (lemmata).  2 Gaelic writers;   3 parts of books;  9,014 lemma-forms;  63,853 lemma-tokens

The word-form indexes for the additional languages are lowercased, even for proper names, except for German, where the initial letter of a noun (or a name) retains its case — actually, the initial letter takes its case from the lemma we have assigned to it, which is usually the same thing (lemmatization is discussed below). Enclitics are separated (eg. English 's, 've, n't, French l', m', German 's (gibt's), 'n (so'n)). Hyphenated words are generally decomponded, eg. French garde-robe; but this policy has not been consistently applied to English, where eg. decompounded water-tight is found as well as unitary water-tight and watertight. In the German index, decompounding of (hyphenless) words, eg. weitergehen, has not been attempted.

When typing a word request into the forms index of an additional language, any uppercase letters are automatically converted to lowercase, except for the German index, where the initial letter of a word remains as typed.

Those searches used a word-forms index, but for these additional languages there are also the lemma-forms indexes. Using the lemmatized English index, a request for the man will match the words man or men; while, using the French lemmatized index, a request for homme will match the words homme or hommes; or using the German lemmatized index, a request for Mann will match words Mann, Mannes, Manne, Männer, Männern. (There is no immediate prospect of a Gaelic lemmatized index.)

Figure 13: A KWIC list of the examples of the lemma listen in Gadaidheacht le Láimh Láidir, according to our English lemmatized index. The corresponding material, in Gaelic and any other languages in which it is available, may be inspected, one example at a time, in the sentence display mode.

Screenshot of KWIC using English lemmatized index

Figure 14: A KWIC list of the examples of the lemma abandonner (to abandon) in Ben-Hur, according to our lemmatized French index. The corresponding material, in Gaelic and any other languages in which it is available, may be inspected, one example at a time, in the sentence display mode.

Screenshot of KWIC using French lemmatized index

Figure 15: A KWIC list of the examples of the lemma Baum (tree) in Scairt an Dúthchais, according to our lemmatized German index. The corresponding material, in Gaelic and any other languages in which it is available, may be inspected, one example at a time, in the sentence display mode.

Screenshot of KWIC using German lemmatized index

Figure 15a: A KWIC list of the examples of the lemma тёмный (dark) in Scéalta Sealgaire, according to our lemmatized Russian index. The corresponding material, in Gaelic and any other languages in which it is available, may be inspected, one example at a time, in the sentence display mode.

Screenshot of KWIC using Russian lemmatized index

It is important to understand, however, that our lemmatization of English and French and German and Russian has been performed automatically, using the Tree Tagger. This software is among the best of its kind, and lemmatization would have been impractical without it, but, as with all statistical operations, a percentage of errors is inevitable, and some remain despite much manual post-checking.

In making our lemmatized indexes, an initial capital has been retained in some words, mostly names (as well as for nouns in the German index); but when typing a word-request into a lemma index, no changes are made to the case typed. Therefore it will make a difference to the results whether the letters you type in your request to a lemmatized index are small letters or capitals. Keep an eye on the scrolling alphabetic list for guidance on what lemmas are available and when you should use a capital letter.

Also, foreign words are excluded from lemma indexes, and this is the main cause of the discrepancies between the counts of word-tokens and lemma-tokens in the indexes. It also makes the lemma indexes slightly more "mono-lingual" than the form indexes.

The description given above of the function of the Gan beinn ar an tsíneadh fhada (accent-insensitive) box applies equally to the other languages. The main practical effect of ticking this box is to include words differing in accents when using either a forms or a lemmas index; and to include words differing in case when using either a lemmas index or the German forms index.

When displaying a sentence found through a lemmatized index, the Innéacsáilte display option shows the sentence in the first language as a list of the lemmas with which it is indexed.

Many lemmas are ambiguous, e.g. in English: pack or stamp or well or lie or bound or back; or in French: pas or tendre or vague or fin. Ideally, we would like to retrieve only the desired sense of an ambiguous lemma, and, since version 1.5, we have tried to separate the senses by part of speech, using four broad categories of N (noun), V (verb), J (adjective) and Z (other). Thus for example a request for English lemma well will be asked to choose between N, V and Z; a request for French lemma vague will be asked to choose between J and N. This may help in many cases, but not in others; for the English lemma lie, for example, a more useful division would be into recline and untruth, rather then into noun and verb. Further changes in this area may be expected in future versions.

• Translation equivalents

A related innovation is the calculation of translation equivalents. Given a word in the source language, this consists of a listing of the relatively most common words in the corresponding segments of the target language. This will clearly be more effective using lemmas than using words, so it is offered only for languages with a lemmatized index (English, French, German, Russian). At present the target produced is a list of unlemmatized word-forms (Gaelic, English, French, German or Russian) — again lemmas would be preferable but are not yet available. This technique has potential, but is limited at present by the amount of text available (English/Gaelic: about 1.7 million words; French/English/Gaelic: about 860,000 words; German/French/English/Gaelic: about 370,000 words; German/English/Gaelic: about 100,000 words; Russian/Gaelic: about 13,000 words; Russian/English/Gaelic: about 50,000 words). With the present amounts of text the results range from interesting to comical.

Where a lemmatized source index is in use (which is offered for languages other than Gaelic), a fourth output display mode is available, named Freagar-fhocla. The calculation, for a selected source-language lemma, may take a few moments. The resulting display is a list of target-language word-forms, each accompanied by a score, and sorted on these scores (the user may have it re-sorted alphabetically on the words themselves). The scores — which are not raw word counts — may range from 99,999,999 down to 100,000, and measure how common the target-language word-form is in the neighbourhood of the source-language lemma in comparison with the target language corpus as a whole.

Figure 15: Search for Gaelic words collocating with the English lemma child, in the Ulster texts.

Screenshot of translation equivalents

The chosen source-language lemma defines a set of sentences in the source-language corpus — those sentences in which it occurs — and a corresponding set of sentences in the target-language corpus — those sentences which translate them. This "select part" of the target-language corpus is studied, looking for words (freagar-fhocla, word-equivalents) which are more frequent there than in the target-language corpus on average.

If the source-language word is uncommon (read: selects less than one-thousandth part of the source language corpus), a warning is issued that the results may not be statistically useful, but no impediment is placed on calculating them.

If a target-language word turns out to be equally frequent in the select part as on average, it is given a score of 100,000; if it turns out to be twice as frequent in the select part as on average, it is assigned 200,000; and so on. Words less frequent in the select part than on average are discarded as uninteresting, so that 100,000 is the minimum score among those retained. At the other end of the range, the score 99,999,999 is assigned to any word which is 100 times or more as common in the select part as on average.

Even if a word falls within the range 100000..99999999, it is still omitted from the displayed list if its absolute frequency is small. This is intended to overcome "accidental" collocations, which will disappear naturally as more text is added, but may mask more significant data while they remain. A suitable empirical lower cutoff for absolute frequency of a word-equivalent is found to be the square root of one-tenth of the frequency of the source-language word.

Results are still poor enough with the amount of text available, but will improve as the quantity increases. Even at the present time, however, it may be of interest to input English lemmas from the following list, and to compare the results with the content of existing English–Irish dictionaries, noting what is found in the dictionaries but absent in the corpus, as well as what relevant equivalents are found in the corpus but not in the dictionaries: smoke, minute, also, yet, dog, ice, bee, garden, help, interest, gravel, cave, busy, cell, kitchen, open.

Installation

It is suggested that you uninstall any earlier version of Tobar na Gaedhilge before installing this one. Uninstallation may be performed using the Start/Programs menu, or using the Add/Remove Programs control panel. If you want to retain older versions, you may install this one to a different folder, eg. to C:\Program Files\Tobar2016 (just change the folder name when prompted during installation).

System requirements for the current version are:

If you have Windows, any version from Win 2000 through XP, Vista, Windows 7 or later, download (tarraing anuas chugat) the file TOBAR2016.EXE to any folder, and double-click on it to install Tobar na Gaedhilge.

If you have only Windows 95 or 98 or ME, see here for an older version; if you have only MS-DOS or Win 3.1, see here for a much older version.

It is also possible to run Tobar na Gaedhilge on other systems through Windows emulation — success on Macintosh has been reported here using Virtual PC on MacOS9, and using Virtual PC 7 on MacOSX, and success has also been reported on Linux with Wine.

Installation of the current version uses the Inno installer, and may take a few minutes.

Earlier versions of Tobar na Gaedhilge used the EZInstall installer, to which the following points apply:
• I have encountered two separate cases where the installer had to be run in Windows safe mode.
• I have had a report that the EZInstall installer does not work ("does nothing") when run on a Windows 64-bit machine, but I have not been able to try this for myself. The workaround advised by EZInstall is "Launch your installer from a 32bit process (eg. use %SystemRoot%\SYSWOW64\cmd.exe to launch)."
• During installation you will be shown — once — the website address of EZInstall, and invited to visit it. This is not harmful.

By default, installation is to the folder C:\Program Files\Tobar, where the following files will be created:

The texts: 125 files, with names bearing the extension .MRK, containing the texts. These files are not intended to be used in any way other than through the program TOBAR. The full list of texts, with acknowledgements to those who originally produced them in machine-readable form, is given later in this file.

The indexes to the collections (each index consists of four files):

A number of files containing optional keyboard layouts:

To run the textbase, after installing it, use the shortcut "Tobar na Gaedhilge" already placed on your Start/Programs menu. Or double-click on the TOBAR.EXE icon, which you will find in the Program Files\Tobar folder (you may, if you find it convenient, create a short-cut by dragging this icon to your desktop).

History

Version 1.9 released August 2016.

Version 1.8 released September 2015.

Version 1.7 released August 2014.

Version 1.6 released September 2012.

Version 1.5 released October 2010.

Version 1.4 released May 2009.

Version 1.3 released September 2006.

Version 1.2 released November 2004.

Version 1.1 released November 2003.

Version 1.0 released as a native Windows application in February 2002.

The system was previously an MS-DOS application, known as GAELDICT or FOCAL, of which four versions were released between 1995 and 1998.

New this time

The texts in detail

In selecting and preparing texts for Tobar na Gaedhilge, the emphasis is on authenticity, accuracy and added-value.

Authenticity: Texts chosen are written in the early to middle 20th century, by native speakers of Gaelic (or occasionally, by non-native speakers who modelled their speech on well-defined local Gaelic). Our policy is to adhere as closely as possible to the language in which the authors wrote them.  In general, the earliest editions have been preferred, and standardized or school editions avoided. Contexts may be displayed exactly as found in the book, but are by default displayed in the same form as used in creating the indexes, viz. after two kinds of corrections may be applied: (1) undisputed errors may be corrected; (2) deviations from the manuscript may be corrected, where the manuscript is available. The latter is particularly important in the case of books published by Oifig an tSoláthair, which, especially since the 1950s, underwent an editorial process of dialect-neutralization — fortunately, the manuscripts of some of these are available. Use of manuscripts is a major exercise and is only in its initial stages; texts to which it has been applied will be noted in the list below. Earlier serial publication may be treated in the same way as manuscripts. Beyond these cases, we do not seek to change the text in any way, for example, we avoid regularization, even within a text, and we retain any spelling which is arguably a valid representation of the spoken word. While much of the information so retained will be random variation, other some will contain important clues to the detailed pronunciation. Particularly important are indications of elision, where the spelling shows them. Also important are words where the presence and absence of a vowel length mark are equally common, showing that no distinction is signified by the length mark in such cases. The borderline between significant and non-significant variation may be identified later, but should not be imposed in advance.

Accuracy: Texts are either typed through the keyboard, or scanned. The input may be performed specificially for Tobar na Gaedhilge, or texts may be donated by individuals or projects, to all of whom we are grateful, and who are acknowledged under "Original e-text" in the lists below. The contribution of Foclóir Stairiúil na Nua-Ghaeilge at Acadamh Ríoga na hÉireann, Dublin, is particularly significant. On incorporation into Tobar na Gaedhilge, all texts are subject to continuous correction of transcription errors, as these are uncovered.

Added-value: It has proved possible to augment the texts, in their stored medium, in various ways which add to their value. Indexing is based on a version of the text in which undisputed errors are corrected. The Gaelic versions are aligned with the versions in other languages, where these are available to us. Lemmatization, in a rough-and-ready form, has been applied to the versions in languages other than Gaelic. New possibilities for analysis arise from these enhancements. Future objectives include lemmatization of the Gaelic texts, and addition of aligned sound files. 

A full list of texts at version 1.9 follows. The text identification scheme used in this list is developed from that used by Foclóir Stairiúil na Nua-Ghaeilge, but the higher numbers may not agree.

ULAIDH:

LU006: Na Rosa go Bráthach; Mághnus 'ac Comhghaill (1885–1965)
Publisher: Oifig an tSoláthair, Dublin, 1939 (we used: An Cúigiú Cló, 1946)
Original e-text: Rita Nic Aodha Bhuí
LU010: Na Glúnta Rosannacha; Niall Ó Domhnaill (1908–1995)
Publisher: Oifig an tSoláthair, Dublin, 1952
Original e-text: Foclóir na Nua-Ghaeilge, Acadamh Ríoga na hÉireann, Dublin
LU013: Troid Bhaile an Droichid; Séamus 'ac an Bháird (1871–1951)
Publisher: Connradh na Gaedhilge, Dublin, 1907 (we used: Preas Dhún Dealgan, Dundalk, undated, 1920s)
Original e-text: Foclóir na Nua-Ghaeilge, Acadamh Ríoga na hÉireann, Dublin
LU016: Eoghan Ruadh Ó Néill; Seosamh 'ac Grianna (1900–1990)
Publisher: Oifig Díolta Foillseacháin Rialtais, Dublin, 1931
Original e-text: Rita Nic Aodha Bhuí, for FNG
LU018: Dochartach Dhuibhlionna; Seosamh 'ac Grianna (1900–1990)
Publisher: Cú Uladh, Dublin, undated (1925)
Original e-text: Foclóir na Nua-Ghaeilge, Acadamh Ríoga na hÉireann, Dublin
LU019: An Grádh agus an Ghruaim; Seosamh 'ac Grianna (1900–1990)
Publisher: C S Ó Fallamhain, Dublin, 1929
Original e-text: Ciarán Ó Duibhín
LU020: Pádraic Ó Conaire agus Aistí Eile; Seosamh 'ac Grianna (1900–1990)
Publisher: Oifig Díolta Foillseacháin Rialtais, Dublin, 1936
Original e-text: Ciarán Ó Duibhín
LU023: Indé agus Indiu; Seaghán 'ac Meanman (1886–1962)
Publisher: C S Ó Fallamhain, Dublin, 1929
Original e-text: Ciarán Ó Duibhín
LU024: Fear Siubhail; Seaghán 'ac Meanman (1886–1962)
Publisher: Preas Dhún Dealgan, Dundalk, 1924 (we used: Oifig Díolta Foillseacháin Rialtais, Dublin, 1931)
Original e-text: Ciarán Ó Duibhín
Tá píosaí Béarla in 1924, a bhfuil Gaedhilg ortha in 1931. Is beag má tá duifir sa chuid eile.
LU025: Sgéalta Goiride Geimhridh; Seaghán 'ac Meanman (1886–1962)
Publisher: Clódhanna Teo, 1918 (we mainly used: Preas Dhún Dealgan, Dundalk, 1922)
Original e-text: Ciarán Ó Duibhín
The stories had earlier been previously published in the "Weekly Freeman" and the "Claidheamh Soluis". Despite what is said in the foreword, the 1922 edition is considerably changed from the 1918 one, and is much better overall. We base our text on the 1922 edition modified by consultation of the 1918 edition, rather than vice versa.
LU026: Ó Chamhaoir go Clap-Sholas; Seaghán 'ac Meanman (1886–1962)
Publisher: Oifig an tSoláthair, Dublin, 1940
Original e-text: Foclóir na Nua-Ghaeilge, Acadamh Ríoga na hÉireann, Dublin
LU027: Mám as mo Mhála; Seaghán 'ac Meanman (1886–1962)
Publisher: Oifig an tSoláthair, Dublin, 1940
Original e-text: Ciarán Ó Duibhín
LU028: Mám Eile as an Mhála Chéadna; Seaghán 'ac Meanman (1886–1962)
Publisher: Oifig an tSoláthair, Dublin, 1954
Original e-text: Foclóir na Nua-Ghaeilge, Acadamh Ríoga na hÉireann, Dublin
LU029: Crathadh an Phocáin; Seaghán 'ac Meanman (1886–1962)
Publisher: Oifig an tSoláthair, Dublin, 1955
Original e-text: Foclóir na Nua-Ghaeilge, Acadamh Ríoga na hÉireann, Dublin
LU032: Saoghal Corrach; Séamus 'ac Grianna (1889–1969)
Publisher: An Press Náisiúnta, Dublin, undated (1945)
Original e-text: Foclóir na Nua-Ghaeilge, Acadamh Ríoga na hÉireann, Dublin
LU033: Mo Dhá Róisín; Séamus 'ac Grianna (1889–1969)
Publisher: Preas Dhún Dealgan, Dundalk, undated (1921)
Original e-text: Foclóir na Nua-Ghaeilge, Acadamh Ríoga na hÉireann, Dublin
LU034: Nuair a Bhí Mé Óg; Séamus 'ac Grianna (1889–1969)
Publisher: Clólucht an Talbóidigh, Dublin, 1942
Original e-text: Foclóir na Nua-Ghaeilge, Acadamh Ríoga na hÉireann, Dublin
LU035: Cioth is Dealán; Séamus 'ac Grianna (1889–1969)
Publisher: Preas Dhún Dealgan, Dundalk, undated (1926)
Original e-text: Foclóir na Nua-Ghaeilge, Acadamh Ríoga na hÉireann, Dublin
LU036: Caisleáin Óir; Séamus 'ac Grianna (1889–1969)
Publisher: Preas Dhún Dealgan, Dundalk, 1924
Original e-text: Foclóir na Nua-Ghaeilge, Acadamh Ríoga na hÉireann, Dublin
LU037: Thiar i dTír Chonaill; Séamus 'ac Grianna (1889–1969)
Publisher: Faoi Chomhartha na dTrí gCoinneal, Dublin, 1940
Original e-text: Ciarán Ó Duibhín
LU038: Bean Ruadh de Dhálach; Séamus 'ac Grianna (1889–1969)
Publisher: Oifig an tSoláthair, Dublin, 1966
Original e-text: Foclóir na Nua-Ghaeilge, Acadamh Ríoga na hÉireann, Dublin
LU039: Micheál Ruadh; Séamus 'ac Grianna (1889–1969)
Publisher: Preas Dhún Dealgan, Dundalk, undated (1925)
Original e-text: Ailbhe Ó Corráin, then of Queen's University Belfast
LU040: Rann na Feirste; Séamus 'ac Grianna (1889–1969)
Publisher: An Press Náisiúnta, undated (1942)
Original e-text: Ciarán Ó Duibhín
LU041: An Clár is an Fhoireann; Séamus 'ac Grianna (1889–1969)
Publisher: Oifig an tSoláthair, Dublin, 1955
Original e-text: Ciarán Ó Duibhín
LU044: Le Clap-Sholus; Séamus 'ac Grianna (1889–1969)
Publisher: Oifig an tSoláthair, Dublin, 1967
Original e-text: Foclóir na Nua-Ghaeilge, Acadamh Ríoga na hÉireann, Dublin
LU045: Oidhche Shamhraidh; Séamus 'ac Grianna (1889–1969)
Publisher: Oifig an tSoláthair, Dublin, 1968
Original e-text: Ciarán Ó Duibhín
LU047: Scéal Úr agus Sean-Scéal; Séamus 'ac Grianna (1889–1969)
Publisher: Oifig an tSoláthair, Dublin, 1945 (we used: Oifig an tSoláthair, Dublin, 1950)
Original e-text: Ciarán Ó Duibhín
LU050: An Teach nár Tógadh; Séamus 'ac Grianna (1889–1969)
Publisher: Oifig an tSoláthair, Dublin, 1948
Original e-text: Ciarán Ó Duibhín
LU054: Cloich Cheann-Fhaolaidh; Séamus Ó Searcaigh (1886–1965)
Publisher: M.H. Gill & Son Ltd, Dublin, 1908
Original e-text: Rita Nic Aodha Bhuí, for FNG
LU056: Thiar i nGleann Ceo; Tadhg Ó Rabhartaigh (1909–1982)
Publisher: Oifig an tSoláthair, Dublin, 1953
Original e-text: Seosamh Ó Labhraí, Coláiste Ollscoile Naomh Muire, Béal Feirste
LU057: Mian na Marbh; Tadhg Ó Rabhartaigh (1909–1982)
Publisher: Oifig Díolta Foillseacháin Rialtais, Dublin, 1937
Original e-text: Foclóir na Nua-Ghaeilge, Acadamh Ríoga na hÉireann, Dublin
LU065: Rácáil agus Scuabadh; Seaghán 'ac Meanman (1886–1962)
Publisher: Oifig an tSoláthair, Dublin, 1955
Original e-text: Foclóir na Nua-Ghaeilge, Acadamh Ríoga na hÉireann, Dublin
LU071: Fallaing Shíoda; Séamus 'ac Grianna (1889–1969)      ÚR!
Publisher: Oifig an tSoláthair, Dublin, 1956
Original e-text: Ciarán Ó Duibhín
LU072: Cáitheamh na dTonn; Pádraig Ó Gallchobhair (1892–1961)
Publisher: Oifig Díolta Foillseacháin Rialtais, Dublin, 1934
Original e-text: Foclóir na Nua-Ghaeilge, Acadamh Ríoga na hÉireann, Dublin
LU073: Na Lochlannaigh; Seosamh 'ac Grianna (1900–1990)
Publisher: Oifig an tSoláthair, Dublin, 1938
Original e-text: Lá, Belfast
LU075: Ó Neamh go h-Árainn; Séamus 'ac Grianna (1889–1969)
Publisher: Oifig an tSoláthair, Dublin, 1953 (previously, Irish Press, not consulted)
Original e-text: Ciarán Ó Duibhín
LU079: Sgéilíní na Finne; Aindrias Ó Baoighill (1888–1972)
Publisher: C S Ó Fallamhain, Dublin, undated (1928)
Original e-text: Ciarán Ó Duibhín
LU105: Buaidh na Tuigse; Séamus Ó Searcaigh (1886–1965)
Publisher: Oifig an tSoláthair, Dublin, 1940 (manuscript consulted)
Original e-text: Brian Mac Lochlainn
LU106: Crann an Eolais, An Bhachlóg; Seaghán Mac Meanman (1886–1962)
Publisher: Brún agus Ó Nualláin Teór., Dublin, c1939
Original e-text: Pádraig Ó Mianáin
LU107: Crann an Eolais, An Duilleog; Seaghán Mac Meanman (1886–1962)
Publisher: Brún agus Ó Nualláin Teór., Dublin, c1939
Original e-text: Pádraig Ó Mianáin
LU108: Crann an Eolais, An Chraobh; Seaghán Mac Meanman (1886–1962)
Publisher: Brún agus Ó Nualláin Teór., Dublin, c1939
Original e-text: Pádraig Ó Mianáin
LU109: Crann an Eolais, An Bláth; Seaghán Mac Meanman (1886–1962)
Publisher: Brún agus Ó Nualláin Teór., Dublin, c1939
Original e-text: Pádraig Ó Mianáin
LU110: Crann an Eolais, An Toradh; Seaghán Mac Meanman (1886–1962)
Publisher: Brún agus Ó Nualláin Teór., Dublin, c1940
Original e-text: Pádraig Ó Mianáin
LU111: Árd-Léightheoir Gaedhilge, Cuid 1; Seaghán Mac Meanman (1886–1962)
Publisher: Brún agus Ó Nualláin Teór., Dublin, 1937
Original e-text: Pádraig Ó Mianáin
LU112: Árd-Léightheoir Gaedhilge, Cuid 2; Seaghán Mac Meanman (1886–1962)
Publisher: Brún agus Ó Nualláin Teór., Dublin, 1939
Original e-text: Pádraig Ó Mianáin
U032: Dírbheathaisnéis, Niall 'ac Giolla Bhrighde (1861–1942), (ed. Liam Ó Connacháin)
Publisher: Brún agus Ó Nualláin Teór., Dublin, undated (1940)
Original e-text: Pádraig Ó Mianáin
U043: Scéalta Johnny Sheimisín, (ed.) Niall Ó Domhnaill (1908–1995)
Publisher: Comhaltas Uladh, Belfast & Dundalk, 1948
Original e-text: Foclóir na Nua-Ghaeilge, Acadamh Ríoga na hÉireann, Dublin
U131: Scéal Hiúdaí Sheáinín; Eoghan Ó Domhnaill (1908–1966)
Publisher: Oifig an tSoláthair, 1940
Original e-text: Rita Nic Aodha Bhuí
A221: Scéalta Sealgaire; trans. Máighréad Nic Mhaicín (1899–1983)
Publisher: Oifig an tSoláthair, 1954 (manuscript consulted)
Original e-text: Rita Nic Aodha Bhuí
AU002: Gadaidheacht le Láimh Láidir; trans. Domhnall 'ac Grianna (1894–1962)
Publisher: Oifig Díolta Foillseacháin Rialtais, Dublin, 1936
Original e-text: Brian Mac Lochlainn
AU011: 'Teacht fríd an tSeagal; trans. Seosamh 'ac Grianna (1900–1990)
Publisher: Oifig Díolta Foillseacháin Rialtais, Dublin, gan dáta (1934) (manuscript consulted)
Original e-text: Foclóir na Nua-Ghaeilge, Acadamh Ríoga na hÉireann, Dublin
AU012: Séideán Bruithne / Amy Foster; trans. Seosamh 'ac Grianna (1900–1990)
Publisher: Oifig Díolta Foillseacháin Rialtais, Dublin, 1935
Original e-text: Nollaig Ó hUrmoltaigh, then of Queen's University, Belfast
AU013: Muinntir an Oileáin; trans. Seosamh 'ac Grianna (1900–1990)
Publisher: Oifig Díolta Foillseacháin Rialtais, Dublin, 1935
Original e-text: Rita Nic Aodha Bhuí
AU018: Scairt an Dúthchais; trans. Niall Ó Domhnaill (1908–1995)
Publisher: Oifig Díolta Foillseacháin Rialtais, Dublin, 1932
Original e-text: Ciarán Ó Duibhín
AU019: Ise; trans. Niall Ó Domhnaill (1908–1995)
Publisher: Oifig Díolta Foillseacháin Rialtais, Dublin, 1933
Original e-text: Rita Nic Aodha Bhuí
AU020: Ben-Hur; trans. Seosamh 'ac Grianna (1900–1990)
Publisher: Oifig Díolta Foillseacháin Rialtais, Dublin, 1933
Original e-text: Ciarán Ó Duibhín, using facilities at Irish Studies, University of Ulster, Coleraine
AU021: Eachtraí Sherlock Holmes; trans. Proinnsias Ó Brógáin (1905–1997)
Publisher: Oifig Díolta Foillseacháin Rialtais, Dublin, 1936
Original e-text: Ciarán Ó Duibhín
AU022: Iascaire Inse Tuile; trans. Séamus 'ac Grianna (1889–1969)
Publisher: Oifig an tSoláthair, Dublin, 1952
Original e-text: Rita Nic Aodha Bhuí
AU023: Dith Céille Almayer; trans. Seosamh 'ac Grianna (1900–1990)
Publisher: Oifig Díolta Foillseacháin Rialtais, Dublin, 1936
Original e-text: Rita Nic Aodha Bhuí
AU024: Faoi Chrann Smola; trans. Séamus 'ac Grianna (1889–1969)
Publisher: Oifig Díolta Foillseacháin Rialtais, 1934
Original e-text: Brian Mac Lochlainn
AU025: Uaigheanna Chill Mhóirne; trans. Domhnall 'ac Grianna (1894–1962)
Publisher: Oifig Díolta Foillseacháin Rialtais, Dublin, 1933
Original e-text: Foclóir na Nua-Ghaeilge, Acadamh Ríoga na hÉireann, Dublin
AU027: Néall Dearg; trans. Niall 'ac Suibhne (1895–1949)
Publisher: Oifig Díolta Foillseacháin Rialtais, Dublin, 1935
Original e-text: Brian Mac Lochlainn
AU031: Ivanhoe; trans. Seosamh 'ac Grianna (1900–1990)
Publisher: Oifig Díolta Foillseacháin Rialtais, 1937
Original e-text: Ciarán Ó Duibhín
AU032: An Máirnéalach Dubh; trans. Seosamh 'ac Grianna (1900–1990)
Publisher: Oifig Díolta Foillseacháin Rialtais, 1933
Original e-text: Ciarán Ó Duibhín
AU033: Caiphtín Blood; trans. Séamus 'ac Grianna (1889–1969)
Publisher: Oifig Díolta Foillseacháin Rialtais, 1937
Original e-text: Brian Mac Lochlainn
AU034: An Bealach Achtuighthe; trans. Séamus 'ac Grianna (1889–1969)
Publisher: Oifig Díolta Foillseacháin Rialtais, 1937 (manuscript ma015 available, not consulted)
Original e-text: Ciarán Ó Duibhín

ULAIDH/BÉARLA:

AU002B: Robbery Under Arms; Rolf Boldrewood
Original e-text: Alan R. Light, via Project Gutenberg
Pagination: none
AU011B: Comin' thro' the Rye; Helen Mathers
Original e-text: Ciarán Ó Duibhín
Pagination: The Alma Taylor Edition, Herbert Jenkins Limited, 159th edition (pp 9–379)
AU012B: Typhoon / Amy Foster; Joseph Conrad
Original e-text: Judith Boss, Omaha, Nebraska, via Project Gutenberg
Pagination: Typhoon: none; Amy Foster: Falk, Doubleday, New York, 1919 (pp 155–214)
AU013B: Islanders; Peadar O'Donnell
Original e-text: Ciarán Ó Duibhín
Pagination: pp 5–224
AU018B: The Call of the Wild; Jack London
Original e-text: Oxford Text Archive
Pagination: Library of America, 1982 (pp 5–86)
AU019B: She; Henry Rider-Haggard
Original e-text: John Bickers, and Dagny, et al, via Project Gutenberg
Pagination: Longmans Green, 1887 (pp 1–317)
AU020B: Ben-Hur; Lew Wallace
Original e-text: Virginia Tech, apparently via Project Gutenberg
Pagination: none
AU021B: The Memoirs of Sherlock Holmes; Arthur Conan-Doyle
Original e-text: Roger Squires
Pagination: none
AU022B: Iceland Fisherman; Pierre Loti, English translation
Original e-text: I believe this version began as the Project Gutenberg text by Dagny, and John Bickers, which is based on the Cadiot translation, as published without attribution by Collier or Appleton in 1902. However, the omissions in that translation have since been filled in "Tobar", and many other changes of wording made, by some process which I cannot recall. If anyone recognizes the present "Tobar" English text, please contact me.
Pagination: none
AU023B: Almayer's Folly; Joseph Conrad
Original e-text: David Price, via Project Gutenberg
Pagination: none
AU024B: Autumn Glory; René Bazin, English translation by Ellen Waugh
Original e-text: Hélène de Mink, "renebazin", and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team (http://www.pgdp.net), via Project Gutenberg
Pagination: Jarrolds, pp 7–291
AU025B: The Graves of Kilmorna; Canon Sheehan
Original e-text: Ciarán Ó Duibhín
Pagination: pp 3–373
AU027B: Red Cloud; General Sir William F Butler
Original e-text: Ciarán Ó Duibhín
Pagination: pp 1–220
AU031B: Ivanhoe; Walter Scott
Original e-text: Anders Thulin, via Wiretap and Project Gutenberg
Pagination: none
AU032B: The Nigger of the Narcissus; Joseph Conrad
Original e-text: Jeffrey Triggs, via Oxford Text Archive. This is based on the Penguin Classics edition of 1988. Several "corrections" have been made to bring it into line with the 1921 text of Heinemann's "Works of Joseph Conrad", which is closer to both the Gaelic and French translations.
Pagination: Penguin Classics, pp 1–128
AU033B: Captain Blood; Rafael Sabatini
Original e-text: Project Gutenberg
Pagination: Grosset & Dunlap (1922), pp 3–356
AU034B: The Right of Way; Gilbert Parker
Original e-text: David Widger, via Project Gutenberg
Pagination: Nelson (c1911), pp 9–378
A221B: A Sportsman's Sketches; Ivan Turgenev, English translation by Constance Garnett            ÚR!
Original e-text: The University of Adelaide Library, https://ebooks.adelaide.edu.au/t/turgenev/ivan/t93s/
Pagination: Heinemann, 1895 (partial), pp 1.1–292 & 2.1–284

ULAIDH/FRAINCIS:

AU012F: Typhon; Joseph Conrad, French translation by André Gide
Original e-text: ATILF, CNRS, Nancy (FranText) (http://atilf.atilf.fr/artis/nvlbiblio.htm, http://www.frantext.fr/)
and          Amy Foster; Joseph Conrad, French translation by Georges Jean-Aubry
Original e-text: Wikilivres (http://www.wikilivres.info/wiki/Amy_Foster)
Pagination: Typhoon: Oeuvres complètes (pp 11–154); Amy Foster: Falk, Gallimard, 1934, pp 155–204
AU018F: L'Appel sauvage; Jack London, French translation by Frédéric Klein
Original e-text: Ciarán Ó Duibhín
Pagination: Phébus, 2003, pp 7–142
AU019F: Elle; Henry Rider Haggard, French translation by Jacques Hillemacher
Original e-text: Ciarán Ó Duibhín
Pagination: Georges Crès, 1920, pp 1–491
AU020F: Ben-Hur; Lew Wallace, French translation by Philippe Mazoyer
Original e-text: Ciarán Ó Duibhín
Pagination: Presses Pocket, no date, pp 1–514
AU022F: Pêcheur d'Islande; Pierre Loti
Original e-text: L'Institut National de la Langue Française
Pagination: INaLF, pp 3–319
AU023F: La Folie Almayer; Joseph Conrad, French translation by Anne-Marie Soulac
Original e-text: Ciarán Ó Duibhín
Pagination: La Pléiade, 1982, pp 5–180
AU024F: La Terre qui Meurt; René Bazin
Original e-text: Ciarán Ó Duibhín
Pagination: Calmann-Lévy, c1903, pp 1–336
AU031F: Ivanhoé: Walter Scott, French translation by Alexandre Dumas père
Original e-text: Jean-Yves Dupuis, Bibliothèque électronique du Québec
Pagination: BeQ, pp 11–896
AU032F: Le Nègre du "Narcisse": Joseph Conrad, French translation by Robert d'Humières revised by Maurice-Paul Gautier
Original e-text: Ciarán Ó Duibhín
Pagination: La Pléiade, 1982, pp 499–643

ULAIDH/GEARMÁINIS:

AU012D: Taifun / Amy Foster; Joseph Conrad, German translation by Elise Eckert      ÚR!
Original e-text: Ciarán Ó Duibhín
Pagination: Engelhorn, 1908, pp 3–168
AU018D: Der Ruf der Wildnis; Jack London, German translation by Rainer von Savigny
Original e-text: Ciarán Ó Duibhín
Pagination: Artemis & Winkler, 1991, pp 7–117
AU020D: Ben Hur; Lew Wallace, German translation by Günter Jürgensmeier
Original e-text: Ciarán Ó Duibhín
Pagination: Deutcher Taschenbuch Verlag, 2010, pp 7–596
On the occasions when the Jürgensmeier translation omits material, or re-orders material significantly, the corresponding sentences may be taken from the German translation of Karl Wilding (1906, marked on output by ¹...¹), or from that of Matthäus Winter (1906, marked by ²...²). All page and line numbers relate to the Jürgensmeier translation.
AU022D: Islandfischer; Pierre Loti, German translation by Carmen Sylva
Original e-text: Projekt GaGa (http://www.gaga.net/pgdp/default.php)
Pagination: Emil Strauss, Bonn, 1898, pp 1–333
AU023D: Almayers Wahn; Joseph Conrad, German translation by Günther Danehl      ÚR!
Original e-text: Ciarán Ó Duibhín
Pagination: Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag, 1972, pp 9–159
AU033D: Captain Blood; Rafael Sabatini, German translation by Joachim Pente      ÚR!
Original e-text: Ciarán Ó Duibhín
Pagination: Unionsverlag, 2014, pp 7–399

ULAIDH/RÚISIS:

LU071R: Шёлковая шаль (4 scéal as "Fallaing Shíoda"), Russian translation by Анна Александровнa Коростелёвa      ÚR!
Original e-text: http://www.philol.msu.ru/~school/sem_irish_t_mojra.zip
http://web.archive.org/web/20130412172451/http://irish.ru/index.php?view=34
Pagination: none
LU075R: Всадник на белой лошади (as "Ó Neamh go h-Árainn"), Russian translation by Анна Александровнa Коростелёвa
Original e-text: http://willie-wonka.livejournal.com/89815.html
Pagination: none
A221R: Записки охотника: Иван Сергеевич Тургенев            ÚR!
Original e-text: http://az.lib.ru/t/turgenew_i_s/text_0080.shtml
Pagination: Глазунов, 1909 (partial), pp 1–385, but with modernised alphabet

CONNACHTA:

LC001: Obair is Luadhainn; Colm Ó Gaora      ÚR!
Publisher: Oifig Díolta Foillseacháin Rialtais, 1937
Original e-text: Ciarán Ó Duibhín
LC023: Feamainn Bhealtaine; Máirtín Ó Diréain
Publisher: 
Original e-text: Foclóir na Nua-Ghaeilge, Acadamh Ríoga na hÉireann, Dublin
LC026: Eochaidh Mac Rí 'n-Éirinn; Micheál Ó Máille
Publisher: Connradh na Gaedhilge, 1912
Original e-text: Foclóir na Nua-Ghaeilge, Acadamh Ríoga na hÉireann, Dublin
LC027: Pádhraic Mháire Bhán; Seán Ó Ruadháin
Publisher: Oifig Díolta Foillseacháin Rialtais, 1935
Original e-text: Foclóir na Nua-Ghaeilge, Acadamh Ríoga na hÉireann, Dublin
LC027: An Mothall Sin Ort; Seán Ó Ruadháin
Publisher: 
Original e-text: Foclóir na Nua-Ghaeilge, Acadamh Ríoga na hÉireann, Dublin
(Almost) restored to the text of the original articles in "Irish Press" and "Comhar", but even there it was subjected to a varying degree of dialect change.
LC093: Fánaidheacht i gConndae Mhuigheo; Séamus Mag Uidhir
Publisher: Oifig an tSoláthair, 1944
Original e-text: Peter K Griffin
This book is an abridged collection of pieces previously published in "An tÉireannach".
LC096: Bairbre Ruadh; Pádraic Ó Conaire
Publisher: Connradh na Gaedhilge, 1908
Original e-text: Foclóir na Nua-Ghaeilge, Acadamh Ríoga na hÉireann, Dublin
C047: Amhráin Chlainne Gaedheal; Mícheál & Tomás Ó Máille
Publisher: Connradh na Gaedhilge, 1925
Original e-text: Foclóir na Nua-Ghaeilge, Acadamh Ríoga na hÉireann, Dublin
C053: An Fibín; Colm Ó Gaora
Publisher: Connradh na Gaedhilge, 1905
Original e-text: Foclóir na Nua-Ghaeilge, Acadamh Ríoga na hÉireann, Dublin
C055: Amhráin Chuilm de Bhailís; ed. Pádraic Ó Domhnalláin, Eoin Mac Néill
Publisher: Connradh na Gaedhilge, 1904
Original e-text: Foclóir na Nua-Ghaeilge, Acadamh Ríoga na hÉireann, Dublin

MUMHAIN:

LM015: Cormac Ua Conaill; Pádraig Ó Duinnín
Publisher: Connradh na Gaedhilge, 1901
Original e-text: Foclóir na Nua-Ghaeilge, Acadamh Ríoga na hÉireann, Dublin
LM054: Timcheall Chinn Sléibhe; Seán Ó Dálaigh
Publisher: Oifig an tSoláthair, 1933
Original e-text: Aindí Coyle
LM066: Na hAird Ó Thuaidh; Pádraig Ua Maoileoin
Publisher: Sáirséal agus Dill, Dublin, 1960
Original e-text: Foclóir na Nua-Ghaeilge, Acadamh Ríoga na hÉireann, Dublin
LM102: Tadhg Gabha; Séamus Ua Dubhghaill
Publisher: Connradh na Gaedhilge, 1904
Original e-text: Foclóir na Nua-Ghaeilge, Acadamh Ríoga na hÉireann, Dublin
M170: Sgeulaidheacht Chúige Mumhan: Pádraig Ó Laoghaire
Publisher: Pádraig Ua Briain, 1895
Original e-text: Foclóir na Nua-Ghaeilge, Acadamh Ríoga na hÉireann, Dublin

ALBA:

COMPANAC: Companach na Cloinne; Iain Mac Phàidein
Publisher: Eneas MacKay, Stirling, 1912
Original e-text: Ciarán Ó Duibhín
TRIDEALB: Tri Dealbhan Cluiche; Alasdair Caimbeul
Publisher: Cló Ostaig, An t-Eilean Sgìtheanach, 1990
Original e-text: Caoimhín Ó Donnghaile, Sabhal Mòr Ostaig
BODACH: Am Measg nam Bodach; various authors
Publisher: An Comunn Gàidhealach, Glaschu, 1938
Original e-text: Ciarán Ó Duibhín
SEANCH: Seanchaidh na Tràghad; Iain Mac Cormaic
Publisher: Eneas MacKay, Stirling, 1911
Original e-text: Ciarán Ó Duibhín
AIRIGH: Seanchaidh na h-Àirigh; Iain Mac Cormaic
Publisher: Eneas MacKay, Stirling, 1911
Original e-text: Ciarán Ó Duibhín

OIRTHEAR:

U018: Sgéalta Mhuintir Luinigh; eag. Éamonn Ó Tuathail (lgh 1–178)
Publisher: Irish Folklore Institute, 1933
Original e-text: Foclóir na Nua-Ghaeilge, Acadamh Ríoga na hÉireann, Dublin
U039: Sgéalaidhe Óirghiall; eag. Seosamh Laoide
Publisher: Connradh na Gaedhilge, Dublin, 1905
Original e-text: Foclóir na Nua-Ghaeilge, Dublin
U136: Mion-chaint na Midhe; Pádraig Ua Dubhthaigh
Publisher: Connradh na Gaedhilge, Dublin, 1905
Original e-text: Foclóir na Nua-Ghaeilge, Dublin

Keyboard layouts

If you are not already using a satisfactory method of keyboarding Gaelic text, you may find one of the Gaelic keyboard layouts which are included with Tobar na Gaedhilge useful.  However, the use of these layouts and of Tobar na Gaedhilge are completely independent of one another.

Information regarding three layouts may be found in the directory into which Tobar na Gaedhilge was installed.  The layouts are:

Miscellaneous

• Citing Tobar na Gaedhilge

If you publish results which have benefitted from the use of Tobar na Gaedhilge, it would be appreciated if you would cite us among your sources. A suggested form of citation for this version is:

Ciarán Ó Duibhín, Tobar na Gaedhilge, version 1.9 (2016), Gaelic textbase and retrieval system for use under MS Windows, freely downloadable from http://www.smo.uhi.ac.uk/~oduibhin/tobar/index.htm

• WARNING: Always check the sources

Although great care has been taken to make the textbase accurate, and it is constantly being improved, it is advisable not to draw linguistic conclusions without checking examples against the original printed matter.

• Using Tobar na Gaedhilge on college networks

Colleges wishing to make Tobar na Gaedhilge available on their student computing networks are welcome to do so.

• Are many letters being displayed as "empty boxes"?

If this is happening, it may help to install the latest versions of the Segoe UI font (used for the alphabetic menu of available words) and the Courier New font (used for the results, despite having poor German quotation marks).

• Like to help?

The compiler intends to continue to add Ulster texts to the textbase. He would welcome volunteers to: