AN DR SÉAMUS Ó CEALLAIGH
(27/10/1879 – 22/01/1954)

Ciarán Ó Duibhín

Leagan leasaithe de alt a foillsigheadh ar Irisleabhar Uí Fhiaich (Béal Fearsaide 1993)

Why should there be anything incongruous in a doctor's residence whose waiting-room offered you Gaelic magazines only; whose walls were covered with gaily-coloured maps by Boazio and Speed and Norden; whose most private apartment — opened only to kindred spirits — had as its most valued treasures the genealogies of Ua Néill and Ua Catháin, hand-printed copies of sixteenth century maps, or facsimiles of Bardic poems in the British Museum. — Tomás Ó Fiaich, University Review, 1/2, Autumn 1954

Ceist: cén fear a rabh alt uaidh ar an chéad uimhir de na tréimhseacháin seo uilig: Béaloideas (1928), Celtica (1946), Bulletin of the Ulster Place-Name Society (1952), Seanchas Ardmhacha (1954)? Lideadh, más lideadh é: bhí cónaí air ar Bhóthar na bhFál, fá chéad slat den áit a bhfuil Cultúrlann MacAdam-Ó Fiaich suidhte anois. Sé freagar na ceiste, ar ndóighe, an fear a bhfuil a ainm ag barr an phíosa seo. Ní bheadh focal beag fá dtaobh de féin as áit ar an chéad uimhir seo de iris Chumann Staire Uí Fhiaich, nó ba é an saineolaí é ar oidhreacht Ghael Uladh ó na meánaoiseanna anall — "the history of the free peoples of Ulster before the disasters of the seventeenth century".1

A shaol2

Rugadh a athair, Micheál Ó Ceallaigh, i mBaile na Scríne, agus ba le Gaedhilg a tógadh annsin é go rabh sé seacht mbliadhna de aois, tráth a fuair a mháthair bás. Deich mbliadhna ina dhiaidh sin, tháinig sé go Béal Fearsaide ina bhuachaill taibhirne. Rugadh Séamus ar 27 Deireadh Fómhair 1879, i dtoigh a athara, 25 Sráid Eoin (John St). Ní fada, is cosamhail, a d'fhan an teaghlach ag an tseoladh sin, agus fá dheireadh tháinig siad go 289 Bóthar na bhFál, nó Crieveban Terrace mar a bheirtí ar na toighthe sin san am, fá 1900. Bhí an teach acu suidhte ar choirnéal Sráid Islandbawn, ar thaoibh na tuaithe de, agus hathruigheadh an uimhir go 237 go luath sna triochaidí. Chaitheadh Séamus a chuid ama i mBaile na Scríne sa tsamhradh, agus is dá thairbhe sin a chuir sé suim sa cheanntar ina rabh a dhúchas — deisceart Dhoire agus tuaisceart Thír Eoghain — agus ins an stair agus ins an teangaidh a bhain leis.

Chuaidh Séamus ar Choláiste Mhaolmhaodhóg, chaith bliadhain amháin ar Choláiste na Ríona, agus d'imigh annsin go Coláiste Ollscoile Bhaile Átha Cliath, áit ar bhain sé B.A. amach i 1902. Bhí an tAthair Éamonn Ó hÓgáin, fear an Onomasticon Goedelicum, ar fhoireann na coláiste, agus níl amhras ná chuidigh seo le n-a shuim sa dinnsheanchas a chothú. Rinne sé amach a dhol le leigheas ansin, agus rinneadh doctúir de i 1909. Bhí sé mar dhoctúir ag Scoil Éanna ar feadh tamaill. Bhí seomraí aige i 53 Bóthar Ráth Garbh. Deirtear nach mbíodh de ábhar léitheoireacta sa tseomra feithimh ach irisí Gaedhilge, agus go mbíodh na ballaí maisithe le macasamhla de shean-dhoiciméidí agus sean-léarscáilí. Ba sa teach seo a bhí an cruinniú ar Aoine Chéasta 1916 nuair a shínigh Eoin Mac Néill an t-ordú le stop a chur leis an Éirghe Amach. Chuaidh sé le liacht ban i 1920, chaith bliadhain ag stáidéar i Wien, phill ar Bhaile Átha Cliath, agus chuir cleachtas ar bun ansin. Bhí sé in a léachtóir le Liacht Ban i gColáiste Ollscoile BhÁC le bliadhanta fada. Phós sé i 1911 agus bhí clann air. Fuair sé bás ar 22 Eanáir 1954.3

Fiachfaidh mé anois le spléachadh a thabhairt ar na rudaí a chuir sé suim ionntu, agus fágfaidh mé ag n-a chuid focal féin é leis an mhórchuid den scéal a innse.

Baile na Scríne

Bhí Connradh na Gaedhilge fá lán-tseol le linn óige Shéamuis, agus bhí sé féin sáithte san obair i mBéal Fearsaide agus i mBaile na Scríne,4 agus scríobhadh sé píosaí don Claidheamh Soluis. Scríobh sé go leor faoina ainm féin, ach bhíodh ainmneacha cleite aige comh maith — "Cú Chadhain" agus "Cineál Eochadh" in a measc. Tá mé den bharamhail gur b'é fosta "Cormac na gCláirseach", gidh nach bhfuil mé go hiomlán cinnte de sin.

Ar na chéad rudaí a scríobh Séamus, bhí sraith alt uaidh in 1902 faoin tiodal "Oidhche Aerach i gCo Dhoire". Cur síos a bhí ann ar scoraidheacht i Móin na nIongnadh i samhradh na bliadhna 1901. Seo Séamus ag tarraingt ar láthair na scoraidheachta:

Tá rud eighinteacht san aer ann [i Móin na nIongnadh] nach bhfuil i dTír Chonaill, nó in Uibh Méith no i gClannaibh Dhomhnaill fhéin, agus cibé ar bith an rud sin, bhí sé ag cogarnaigh liom go rabhas ar ais aríst i mBaile na Scríne mo sheacht sinnsear. Cia dheanfadh dobhata de? An ruibeag gealaighe a bhí ann, bhí sí ag déanamh a dithcheallta ar ár son anois, agus ba haoibhinn aoibhinn aerach an tsoillse lastair a bhí dá scapadh thart ar an ghleann. Nar bh'é sin smulgadán Chreige Raithneáchan agus druim fhada an Chnuic Mhóir ar an láimh chlé? — agus dar a leoga! bhí Speal Chuach beagnach sa mhullach orainn. Phreab mo chroidhe istigh le hathas. Maiseadh, a Chadhain a mharbh an phiast, a luigh siar agus a fuair bás shuasad, níl neart agat air gan a bheith ag breathnughadh anuas orainn an oidhche seo. Slán Dé aige na laethibh chuaidh thart, nuair bhíos-sa ag tomhas na sléibhteadh annso go hóg agus ag rámsail na mbóthar,
        "Nar iomdha la breágh gréine
        Agus maidin bheag chiúin shamhraidh
        Bhí mise ar a' mhullaigh seo
        Ag buachailleacht na ngamhna!"
mar adeir an ramhan-ceóil. Agus b'fhíor do. Bhíos beó aríst thiar insna sean-bhliadhantaibh agus ag leigint do m'aigneadh dhul le na dúthchas mar so. Tigeann an náire orm agus a rádh nar bh'fhiosach domh go rabhas in mo sheasamh ar an bhóthar. Nuair a tháinic mé chugam fhéin, bhí rugtha aige duine innteach ar mhuinchilte mo chóta agus bhíos aige mo threórughadh fríd an tsluagh mhór a bhí os comhair Sgiobóil Mhic Sheagháin.5

Thug Séamus cunntas bríomhar annsin ar obair na hoidhche: ar na hóráidí, na hamhráin, na scéalta; ar na cuairteanna a rinneadh ar na toighthe ina dhiaidh sin; agus tá trácht aige ar lucht an Chonnartha a bhí i láthair: ar Lughaidh Breathnach, ar Phádraig Ó Caiseadaigh, ar Pheadar Mac Con Midhe; agus ar an tseanmhuinntir a rabh Gaedhilg acu ó dhúthchas: ar Mháta Ó Muireadhaigh, táilliúir Mhóin na nIongnaidhe; ar Phronn Mhac Bhlaosgaigh; ar Phaidí Mhac Thréinfhir, gréasuidhe Fallagloon.

Rinne Séamus obair mhór le eolas ar Ghaedhilg Dhoire agus Thír Eoghain a scaipeadh agus a bhuanú, eadar theangaidh agus litridheacht. Tá eolas fá fhocla agus fá fhoghraidheacht sna píosaí a scríobh sé don Chlaidheamh. Foillsigheadh nótaí uaidh ar litridheacht agus ar stair an cheanntair i gcúl leabharthaí cosamhail le Seachrán Cairn tSiadhail le Seosamh Laoide, agus Dhá Chéad de Cheoltaí Uladh le Énrí Ó Muirgheasa. B'fhíor do "Eoghanach" nuair a dubhairt sé "his work is to be found hidden away in the indexes and footnotes of other men's books".6 Tá na nótaí seo breac-
lán de phoinntí suimeamhla, go speisialta i dtaca le logainmneacha de. Ní ba mhoille ina shaol, bhí giota dár tiodal "Why Gleann Con Chadhain is so called" aige ar Béaloideas. Agus mar éacht scuir, chuir sé canamhaint Bhaile na Scríne ar dhá leabhar don Ghúm: Lucht Picí agus Sleagh (Keightly) agus An Fáidh Dubh (Carleton).

Nuair a rinne Éamonn Ó Tuathail stáidéar ar Ghaedhilg lár Uladh ina leabhair Sgéalta Mhuintir Luinigh, dubhairt sé: "Dr. Séamus Ó Ceallaigh and the present writer visited these districts [Baile na Scríne agus, is dóiche, Dún Geimhin] in the autumn of 1931 and found only one person able to converse in Irish." Ba é sin Eilís Ní Chléircín (Bean Uí Dhonnghaile), Leabaidh, Baile na Scríne, a ndearnadh dornán beag scéalta uaithe a chur ar phlátaí fuaime an bhliadhain chéanna sin.

Ó Méith

Ach bhí Gaeltacht eile in Oirthear Uladh a rabh Séamus eolach uirthi — Gaeltacht Oirghialla. Bhí altanna ag "Cú Chadhain" ag cur síos ar Ó Méith ar an Claidheamh i 1902. Má bhí ní ba mhó den Ghaedhilg dhúthchasach fágtha in Óméith ná i mBaile na Scríne, ba lugha go mó suim na ndaoine innti. Ní rabh dóchas ag Séamus as a ndearcadh:

... there is no satisfactory result for the work spent on the district since the day the Belfast Branch of the Gaelic League held its first meeting on Cholm-Chaim graveyard green some four years since... There is, no doubt, rather more Irish spoken among the older people, but no effort is made to hand it down to the younger generation; indeed one is inclined to suspect a systematic, if unconscious effort to prevent the children from supplementing the work done in the schools, and even where the parents are sympathetic, they hold the very mistaken notion that all is well, and enough done, when the First Book of O'Growney is covered...7

Agus, go luath ar maidin an lae i ndiaidh na Feise, a rabh Séamas ag moltóireacht uirthi:

People were just stirring; the donkeys were being loaded with the bardogs, and the children were driving out the cows. Everywhere the Black Fact confronted us. Every mother was an Irish speaker, but not a single word could be heard but English. Somehow, the people of Omeath have mostly the idea that, to speak Irish and English, they would need two heads...8

D'fhoillsigh Séamus beagán seanchais as Óméith. Ba ó Neillidh Pheadair Dhuibh Ní Annluain a fuair sé an mhórchuid den tseanchas seo. Bhain sé duaiseanna ar Fheis Bhéal Fearsaide i Mí na Nollag 1900 as an tseanchas seo.9 D'fhág sé comaoin eile ar mhuinntir Oirghialla nuair a thug sé Aindrias Ó Marcaigh go Baile Átha Cliath go labradh an teangeoluidhe Sommerfelt leis. Bhunuigh Sommerfelt a chunntas ar Ghaeilg Ard Mhacha ar an chomhrádh sin a bhí acu.10 Tá píosa neamhghnáth fá Aindrias Ó Marcaigh agus Neillidh Ní Annluain a bheith ag cainnt ar Sheámus, le linn é bheith ar shiubhal ag deánamh foghlama ar an léigheas.10a

Shíl Séamus gur luigh sé le céill gurab í an chanamhaint áiteamhail den Ghaedhilg a theagascfaidhe de ghnáthach. Níorbh amhlaidh a bhí i nGlinntí Aontroma, deir sé, mar a rabh blas na Mumhan dá fhoghluim do na páistí ins na scoltacha:

Ulster has many Munster and Connacht teachers, and they are nearly all giving instructions in Irish, bail ó Dhia orthú, but the blessing is not an unmixed one. It is easy to see that all attempts to rehabilitiate the language in any district should be made from a basis of local usage in the matter of pronunciation. The gap between the Irish-speaking mother and her English-speaking child is so big already that nothing in our methods should tend to widen it. And should not the implied principle be observed as far as possible even where Irish has died out.11

Cúrsaí reatha.

Níor leisc le Séamus a ladar a chur isteach i scéaltaí reatha an lae, go háirid má bhain siad leis an Ghaedhilg nó leis an náisiúnachas. Scríobh sé litir chuig an Chlaidheamh ag ionsaí Choláiste Oiliúna Naomh Muire i mBéal Fearsaide, cionnas iad a bheith faillightheach i dteagasc na Gaedhilge, agus cionnas gur fhostuigh siad múinteoirí as Sasain a rabh droch-mheas acu ar nósanna na hÉireann. Scríobh "Cú Chadhain" arís ar an Chlaidheamh fá chúrsaí oideachais: "Dr Starkie on Irish Educational Reform" agus "Some Hints from the States".

Bhí iris seachtmhaineamhail ghearr-shaolach darbh ainm The Nationist ar an mhargadh in 1905–6, agus scríobhadh Séamus colún Gaedhilge air anois is arís. Ocht bpíosa ar fad a tháinig uaidh ar an iris sin.

An litir a ba ghreannmhaire, b'fhéidir, dar scríobh sé chuig an Claidheamh ("On a certain propensity of ours"), scríobh sé í ar ócáid nuair a d'fhoillsigh coiste áirid tuairisc ar córas litrighthe na Gaedhilge. Bhí daoine céimeamhla as gach cearn den tír ar an choiste seo, má b'fhíor, agus Séamus ina measc. Ach ba bheag a mbaint leis an choiste nó leis an tuairisc. Ní mó ná sásta a bhí Séamus:

I hope that this orbis terrarum of ours will stand sufficiently aghast when its attention is drawn to a provoking grievance of the subscriber's. He has been treated low down by the late Spelling Committee... Should my ear fail to catch the reverberations of an upheaval in distant Peru, or should the Zambesi Bridge refuse to spring even one girder on my behalf, the least I think that Fodhla, our country, can do, since she has a direct stake in the matter, is to dissociate herself from the varlets concerned by tossing up an inland sea somewhere, after the most approved fashion of the Annals.12

Magadh atá annsin ar dhaoine a théid ar mire nuair a shíleas siad a leithéid de mhasla bheith faighte acu. Mhínigh sé a ghearán annsin:

These are the facts, which fall naturally into three counts. Firstly, I was appointed on the Spelling Committee and treated to its minutes without my consent being once asked. Secondly, I was long accustomed to receive on the same morning the minutes of a meeting held a month previously and a handsome invitation to attend that same evening at another meeting of the Committee some one hundred miles off. Thirdly, the reforms of the Committee were published "in globo" without my being given an opportunity, as a member of the Committee, of seeing the report in its final stage.13

Níor dhubhairt sé fá n-a dhearcadh féin ar an litriú ach seo:

Personally... I should have ventured on some form of mild protest against many of the findings of the Spelling Committee... but as one who hoped to go down to his grave spelling badly by his own standard, as far as he thinks the public will gain thereby, it never occurred to me that the report was binding for evermore... 14

Phill sé annsin ar phríomhphoinnte na litre:

There is undoubtedly riot amongst us a certain peevishness of disposition touching the most abstract question, which ill accords with a movement which has got the word "Intellect" on its sign-board. Reduced to its physical basis (I hope I am not a Materialist) these little emotions are very commonplace - certain rapid processes of oxidation and deoxidation which will insist on controlling the man. The tiny atoms will not be stilled. If we could only bring them to rest we might reserve their unrest for the enemy... It is in the nature of quicksands that they will not retain geometrical figures. If it amuses us to argue about designs in so unstable a medium, there will be scope and to spare for differences of opinion...15

Ábhar eile a tharraing peann Shéamuis a b'eadh an ceol ("The Feis Ceoil and Irish Music"):

Plato would fain have purged his republic of all instruments that carried many strings or served for many harmonies... few now hold with him in this matter... and yet, though it may be a heresy to say it, the Gaelic League has, in a certain sense, taken over the views of the Grecian philosopher as a remnant lot... our philosophy has by implication tended to the exclusion of the more complex forms of music in the belief that they conflict eventually with the perfect artistic expression of the National soul. To realise how unequal is the contest in this mutiny of sheer melody against the established authority of cosmopolitan music, one need only have attended during the past week at the Feis Ceoil...

Much has been achieved in music by the Gaelic League, for it has secured recognition for the traditional interpretation of our melodies. From such work the Feis Ceoil has stood sullenly aloof. Some progress has been made by the Feis Ceoil in raising the standard of musical education — but the Gaelic League has been quite untouched by its work... and as one of our claims is that we stand for an educational and artistic ideal, it is hard to see how we can handle so difficult a problem... unless our wits are sharpened by a consideration of achievements at present largely outside us...

At the Feis Ceoil concert, Mr O'Mara gave us a beautiful interpretation of the air from Bunting which is known as the "Derry Love-Song," and which is associated variously in English with the words of "Emer's Fairwell to Cuchulainn" and "Would God I were the tender apple blossom"... It is no hardihood on our part to recommend such a melody to the notice of the cosmopolitan musician... If he cannot understand from the study of such models what we mean by the evolution of an Irish School of Music, let him be frank with us and confess as much...

...the Irish Symphony by Signor Palmieri... seems to get nearer the classic symphonic form than the work of Stanford, Harty or Esposito. The themes selected are shorter - a few bars from an air often - and the whole is a very creditable attempt to work out the subject matter technically. But at what a sacrifice in our melodies!.. In the final presto movement, one gets a glimpse of Signor Palmieri as a contrapuntalist, when he balanced "'S a Mhuirnin dilis" against "Kitty of Coleraine"... but... "S a Mhuirnin dilis"... is royalty in disguise, and in the grand symphonic mood, of all things it would never philander so gaily by the roadside with a country lass. To hear it rushed off at a pace twice as fast as ever it went before, hardly suggests that the composer approached so beautiful an air in a reverential spirit.

Can a stranger write an Irish Symphony - the kind we want anyway? I do not think he can... it would be better perhaps to choose the most open form possible in dealing with our airs in orchestra... What we look for is not someone who will scrape snatches of our airs into a "pot-pourri", but a musician who will suddenly find his national self as Grieg found himself, under the influence of Nordraak.16

I measc na bpostanna puiblidhe a líon Séamus ó am go ham, bhí sé in a chathaoirleach ar Choiste na bhFoillseachán den Chonnradh in 1903,17 agus ina uachtarán ar Chumann Náisiúnta na Macléighinn in 1909.18

Ainmneacha.

Bhí suim as cuimse ag Séamus in ainmneacha, eadar ainmneacha daoine agus ainmneacha áite. Scríobh sé alt fada ar "Irish Christian Names" ar Irisleabhar na Gaedhilge i 1901. In 1902, scríobh sé litir ag tacú le Énrí Ó Muirgheasa a bhí i ndiaidh a mholadh go bhfoilseochaí liosta de leaganacha Gaedhilge na sloinntí. Ach bhí Séamus buartha fán easpa chruinnis dá ndeánfaí sin ró-ghasta:

The question is one of extreme difficulty... Perhaps it is the conglomeration of these difficulties which would make Mr Morris satisfied with a makeshift of some kind for the present - a book to work from as a basis of operations, but which in itself would be nothing more than an imbroglio of certainties and uncertainties - doubts, difficulties and ingenious devices placed side-by-side with the established nomenclature of O'Huidhrin and O'Dubhagain. I think such a book would be a mistake. It would be an encouragement to that inaccurate scholarship which is threatening us on every side, and before a corrected edition could be published much irreparable harm would be done.19

Agus tá an litir chéanna lán de eolas:

A Belfastman named Sweeney wants the Irish form of his surname. Few would hesitate to set him down as a Mac Suibhne, and yet if he comes, not from Donegal, but from a certain parish in Derry, he is really Mac Suaigeáin! So a Duddy might naturally be an O'Dowd, but if he be of Derry origin, he is an Ó Duide. An O'Boyle is perhaps Ó Baoigheall from the Donegal family; in Armagh the name Ó Baoilte is so anglicised. No one would associate the Kearneys of Cooley with the family Mac Giolla Chiaráin, were not the Irish form of the name there as a proof of their identity... I know of nothing printed that would tell us that Small in Omeath is Ó Caoilte, and that Ellmore is Ó hIomra; that MacCrail by the Bannside is only MacNeill, and that the Scotch MacCracken is nothing but a variant, owing to the action of two well-known dialectical processes, of the Antrim name McNaughton.20

Scríobh Ó Muirgheasa arís, agus an Piarsach, agus thoisigh an Claidheamh a fhoillsiú liostaí. Bhíodh corr-nóta ó Shéamus ina measc.

Ach is i réimse na logainmneacha a bhí an mhaistreacht go hiomlán aige. Scríobh sé alt ar an ábhar seo in 1934 ("Some Place-Names in Co. Tyrone"), ina dtráchtann sé ar na hainmneacha Sliabh Síos, Mallow Agowre agus Sawel. In 1946, d'fhoilsigh Cainneach Ó Maonaigh liosta logainmneacha as lámhscríbhinn a rinne an Bráthair Pól Ó Gormaigh sa 17ú aois. Scríobh Séamus nótaí ar na hainmneacha sin ("Notes on Place-Names in Derry and Tyrone"): Dún Oisín, Mullach na gCros, Na Béalógadh, Sliabh Mhic Eirc, Gaibhle Ó Dubhthaigh, Loch Lug, i measc a lán eile. In 1948, thug Séamus léacht don RSAI, a foilsigheadh in 1950 ("Old Lights on Place-Names: New Lights on Maps"). Mhínigh sé mar fuair sé leabharthaí P.W. Joyce mar dhuais agus é ar scoil; agus, nuair a tháinig sé go Baile Átha Cliath, gurab é an áit ba mhó a bhí sé ag iarraidh a fheiceáil, teach Joyce ag 125 Leinster Road.

Thug sé an rabhadh céanna dúinn arís a thug sé i gcás na sloinnte:

My own grandmother was born in a townland called Ballydullaghan. Joyce explains that readily. It is the townland of the spectre. He could not be expected to know that Ó Dolacháin was a family name, now extinct, in that very place, and that we have the authority of the Book of Ballymote for that fact...

It is this reference to dialect and to local knowledge which is always urgent and which makes lists prepared from the study armchair of only limited value. I know of two such in which the nomenclature of a whole territory is attacked as an éadan, with hardly a note of interrogation... In one of these enumerations I find the village of Swatragh, in the centre of Co Derry, explained as a mire; alternatively, as a disordered place. A simple reference to the barony map of 1610 gives the answer without any further speculation. It is "Ballintotry" — showing that the name comes from its connection with a suaitreach — a hired Scandanavian soldier. The compilation I have in mind is the result of years of lamplight over O'Donovan's Supplement and is no better than if Vallancey himself had come from the grave.21

Dubhairt sé go gcaithfidh muid a dhul i muinín na scoláirí, "that haughty class of men":

I am rather afraid of the scholars myself. When we common folk have worked up the "Crassa Minerva" — our homespun mother-wit — to the evolution of some theory which to us seems plausible and comprehensive, we never know when one of these people may suddenly decide to regard it as a thing impish and demoniacal — something to be crushed forthwith. So they hit us over the head with a gnarled Sanscrit root, or, worse still, they quote Pokorny into our very beards. Still, in the matter of place-name interpretation I hold that their help has not been adequately availed of.22

Ins an chuid eile den alt, thrácht sé ar ainmneacha suimeamhla éagsamhla: Calhame, Allta Easgaidh Lóime Laithreachan ("a deep glen with which I had been familiar since childhood"), Tumba Cholla ar Sliabh gCalainn, the Three Taghmores, agus go leor eile. Scríobh sé alt eile ar an ainm Cuaille Chianachta (The Northern Boundary of the Archdiocese of Armagh), agus bhí sraith alt aige ar na chéad uimhreacha den Bulletin of the Ulster Place-Name Society.

Stair.

Is goirid an chéim é ó na sloinnte agus na logainmneacha go dtí stair na gcinidheacha féin. Ní hannamh, ins na scríbhinní atá luaidhte, a chuireadh Séamus síos ar theorainneacha Ghleann Chon Chadhain nó Chlann Domhnaill Duinn. Shíl sé gur cheart dúinn níos mó suime a chur i leagan amach na nGael in aimsir na plandála:

In the reign of James I, the free clans of Ireland go down like a stone dropped in a boghole, and for all our histories tell us, we know absolutely nothing about them until they emerge again under the Emancipation Act of seventy years ago. This is the big characteristic of those two hundred years of our national life — the silence of the Gael...

... there is an unknown mine of information still untouched in the State Papers, but its value is depreciated by the fact that its writers could never understand the Gael. Its information is second-hand — the views of strangers. But there is one particular department of such records which I believe will yet prove of untold value in resurrecting the life of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries in Ireland. That is the Patent Rolls of Elizabeth and of the two Kings who came after her - but especially of James I. The tribal divisions, the position of the clans when the storm of the Plantation broke, the Christian names and surnames in the different parts of the country with the first beginnings of Anglicization showing on them, are all set out therein in a form which should recommend itself to anyone with the historic sense.23

Ba óg ina shaol a scríobh sé an méid sin agus bhí leithchéad bliadhain le dhul thart sula dtáinig toradh ar na smaointightheacha sin, nuair a foillsigheadh Gleanings from Ulster History i 1951:

Lá lán-tsamhraidh i bhfad ó shoin, agus mé ins na déagaibh, bhíos im' leas-luighe ar stuadh na Binn' Bradaighe. Bhí Dún Geimhin le mo chosaibh agus Gleann Geimhin, máthair na Roa, ag iomchar na habhna go tairise ar chlár a huchta go dtí Loch Feabhail. Bhí an loch féin comh héadrocht le gloine, comh maoth le gáiridhe giorsaighe. Bhí na néaltaí solusda ag teilgint iomdha scáil silteach ar alltáin agus ísleáin Inis Eoghain. Siúd an bhliain ag druidim leis an fhóghmhar; siúd snuadh na háille ag síothlódh ar ghort an arbhair agus an t-arbhar féin ag déanamh ar leath-apuidheacht. Ba é fosta séasúr an bhugha ar mhacharaibh Chúig' Uladh é, tráth dtig gnaoi gheanamhail ar fhás an lín agus an bárr sin faoi n-a aon-aoibh cluigín gorm. Grádh mo chroidhe an ró sin ar an lín; truagh an tsúil nach bhfaca riamh é nó an mheabhair nach mbíonn ag brath ar a theacht. An lá úd atáim 'a rádh bhí na bailte thíos breactha, mar bhéadh clár fithchille ann, le huaithne ghléghil, le lasair an ómra a's le gorm na Maighdine Muire.24

Thoisigh sé a smaointeadh ar stair an cheanntair — ar Cholmchille ag pilleadh as Albain ionnsair Druim Ceat, agus ar Dhomhnall Ballach Ó Catháin ag imeacht go Baile Átha Cliath, turas nár dhual dó pilleadh uaidh.

Ach tháinig an méid seo as mo chuid machtnaimh gur chinneas-sa ar an chomhairle, lá úd an tsléibhe, tuilleadh eólais do tharraingt chugham fa'n oireacht aoibhinn a bhí thíos fúm agus tuairisc a háille do chraobhscaoileadh le fearaibh Éireann.25

Stair Chineál Binnigh, ar chuid de Chineál Eoghain iad, i gcroidhe-lár Chúige Uladh, ón tréimhse réamh-Normannach anuas go dtí aimsir na Plandála, atá sa leabhar, ach is iomaí casán a shiubhail an t-údar le n-a linn sin. Sé dubhairt sé:

I have concentrated... on viewing episodes and facets which have been lost sight of. To achieve this, I have endeavoured to use the inter-dependence of certain sources — the genealogical tracts, entries in the annals, the place-names of the district, what traditions happened my way as a boy, what Seáan O Donnabháin has left on record to us in his letters from there in 1834, and so on.26

Seo breitheamhnas "Eoghanach" ar an leabhar:

The questions he raises in this book cannot fail to arouse interest even in those of us who make no pretence to learning. The very titles of his chosen themes whet the appetite — the expansion of Cineal Eoghain, O'Neills, O'Donnellys, O'Quinns, O'Hagans, O'Devlins and the rest, across the face of Ulster from Inis Eoghain to the gates of Dundalk; the struggle for hegemony between O'Neill and MacLochlainn; the rise, decline and fall of the O'Cahans; the mystery of the dual custody of the Bell of St Patrick by the O'Meallains and the Mulhollands; the sequence of stirring events associated with our great place-names — Aileach, Tealach Og, Dungannon, Armagh.27

Ní olc an sampla seo ag "Eoghanach" den tsolus a chaitheann obair Shéamuis ar ionaid a shílfí ar an chéad amharc nach rabh ionntu ach áiteacha suaracha gan tsuim:

With Séamus Ó Ceallaigh as our guide we shall view this northern land of ours with fuller and clearer vision. At times indeed we shall see a common-place scene transfigured into something rich and strange. Let us take the case of Loch Lugge. About a mile outside the town of Moneymore as you travel towards Ballyronan you will notice on your left hand side a stretch of low-lying swampy ground, closely covered with brushwood and stunted trees. This quiet place had long kept a great secret. It was just here that after Kinsale, Hugh O'Neill, beset by traitors and open foes "made the last stand for the continuity of Irish sovereignty." Henceforward thanks to Séamus Ó Ceallaigh, a glory will forever rest above that sullen landscape.28

Léirigheann an spléachadh seo fríd scríbhinní Shéamuis, léirigheann sé leithead agus doimhne a eolais. Agus, más fada an t-aistear a rinne muid ina chuideachta, dearc go bhfuil muid arais ins an áit ar thosuigh muid innti — deisceart Dhoire. Agus b'fhéidir nárbh fhearr an dóigh a gcuirfimís críoch ar na gnaithe uilig ná píosa de Ghaeilg na tíre sin a chur síos, as an aistriúchán a rinne sé ar An Fáidh Dubh.

Lá tais foghmhair a bhí ann, agus b'fhada an meadhon lae thart cheana féin. Bhí grian bháithteach ag tuitim siar fríd mhór-néaltaí modartha. Thárla faoi'n am sin go dtainic ainnear óg amach as an chró toighe adubhramar. I gcionn a h-aon nó a dó a's fiche bliadhain d'aois a bhí sí. Suas léithe ar mhaoil árdáin bhig nó cnocáin a bhí fá ghiota de'n toigh, agus bhreathnuigh uaithe go dian ins na ceithre h-áirde, ionnann a's gurbh fhada léithe gan amharc 'fhagháil ar dhuine innteach ag déanamh ar an toigh. Badh í an chuairt ar an bhuailidh fholaimh aice í, do réir mar bhí cuma uirthe. Coimheád cruaidh an coimheád sin aice, soir a's siar. Bhí sin le léigheamh ar a súilibh fíoch a's díbhfeirge a's meath a dóchais, agus tharraing sí ar an toigh fá dheireadh go mall-triallach meabhrach. Bhí gach aon ruaig aice mar sin ar an chnocán go cionn uaire go leith an chluig. Thárla fá n-a déin fá dheireadh, ar an bhóthar, caile a d'aithnigh sí ar an bhall.

Áit uaigneach, iargcúltach an áit a rabh an phruchóg toighe - na charbh fhiú a athrach dh'ainm a chur léithe - áit a rabh uathbháis shaoghalta agus neamh-shaoghalta ag baint léithe. Faoi fhasgadh an ghleanna, beagán, a bhí an pruch féin. Dá thairbhe sin de, badh tearc taitneamh geal gréine a thigeadh dá chomhair. Maidhm sléibhe domhain rithte atá san áit, agus bidheann cosg ar shoillse na maidne ag na beanna thoir; bidheann na h-árdáin thiar eadar é a's léas coinfheasgair. Badh dheacair, 'ar ndóigh, cearn 'fhagháil a badh mhó dursán is uaigneas. Gleann seasg a bhéarfá air a's gan é 'chur thar a ainm. Cha rabh tor ná tom ann, an uair údaigh, a bhéarfadh suidhe do'n éan ná sogh do'n eallach. Drae rud a bhí le tabhairt fá dear ann seachas an iomad stacán lom-ádhbhal carraice ag gobadh amach go h-uaithbhéalta úr-ghránna ar a chuid leargaí; sin nó an fhairsingeacht gharbh liath cíbe... An tost agus an t-uaigneas badh dual ariamh do'n áit, agus bhéarfadh sé obair do dhuine a rádh cia acu faoi smúid na Samhna nó faoi loinnir na Féil' Eoin badh mhó réim iad.29

Nótaí.

1. Seanchas Ardmhacha I lch 211.

2. Thig cuid mhaith den eolas seo ar shaol Shéamuis as Breathnach agus Ní Mhurchú: Beathaisnéis 1.

3. Dearc ar An tUltach (3/1954) lch 10; An tUltach (5/1954) lch 9; Seanchas Ardmhacha I lgh 211-214 (1954-55); Bulletin of the Ulster Place-Name Society II lch 1 (1954); University Review I lgh 62–64 (1954); Onoma V lgh 126–7 (1954).

4. An Claidheamh Soluis X 34 (31/10/1908) lch 11.

5. An Claidheamh Soluis IV 1 (15/3/1902) lgh 4–5.

6. Seanchas Ardmhacha I lch 212.

7. An Claidheamh Soluis IV 20 (26/7/1902) lch 343.

8. An Claidheamh Soluis IV 24 (23/8/1902) lch 407.

9. Irisleabhar na Gaedhilge XI (1/1901) lch 26.

10. Norsk Tidsskrift for Sprogvidenskap II (1929) lgh 107–191.

10a. Feargus, "Cuartughadh Shéamuis", An Claidheamh Soluis V 44 (9/1/1904) lch 2.

11. An Claidheamh Soluis V 13 (6/6/1903) lch 3.

12. An Claidheamh Soluis VII 43 (6/1/1906) lgh 8–9.

13. ibid.

14. ibid.

15. ibid.

16. An Claidheamh Soluis XI 12 (29/5/1909) lch 7; agus XI 14 (12/6/1909) lch 7.

17. An Claidheamh Soluis IV 48 (7/2/1903) lch 808.

18. An Claidheamh Soluis XI 13 (5/6/1909) lch 7.

19. An Claidheamh Soluis (11/1/1902) lgh 719–720.

20. ibid.

21. JRSAI LXXX (1950) lch 174.

22. ibid. lch 175.

23. An Claidheamh Soluis V 10 (16/5/1903) lch 5.

24. Gleanings from Ulster History, réamhrádh.

25. ibid.

26. ibid lch 1.

27. Seanchas Ardmhacha I lch 213.

28. ibid.

29. An Fáidh Dubh, lgh 8–9.


Cuid de Scríbhinní Shéamuis Uí Cheallaigh

Cuireadh ath-eagar ar an liosta seo, do réir na bliadhna, agus cuireadh tuilleadh leis, eadar lúibíní catacha.  Tá liosta is iomláine ná é ag Nollaig Ó Muraíle in Gleanings from Ulster History, eagrán 1994, pp 135–9.  Níltear cinnte gurab é Séamus Ó Ceallaigh an t-ughdar in achan chás ina bhfuil leas-ainm in úsáid.

BUPNS: Bulletin of the Ulster Place-name Society
CS: An Claidheamh Soluis
FL: Fáinne an Lae
IG: Irisleabhar na Gaedhilge
JRSAI: Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland

1899

Letter: The North Awake!. FL I/64 (25/03/1899) 94.

Sgiath Chon g-Culainn (Belfast). Eagarthóir Gaedhilge "Corca Eochaidh". 
15 July.

1900

Leinster Football Songs. IG X (May) 521–4.

(Ps. Cineál Eochadh): Seanchas Ó Méith Mara. IG X (Nov) 612. 

1901

(Ps. Cormac na gCláirseach): Sgoraidheacht i Móin na nIongnaidhe; agus 
litir fá fhocla. CS III/23 (17 Aug) 358–9. 

(Ps. Cú Chadhain): Caití na gCiabh. IG XI (Nov) 185–6. 

Irish Christian Names. IG XI (Dec) 197–205.

(Ps. Cineál Eochadh): Seanchas Ó Méith Mara. IG XI (Dec) 207. 

1902

The Collection of our Surnames; freagar ar Henry Morris (lch 687). CS III/44 (11 
Jan) 719–20. 

The Collection of our Surnames; more notes. CS III/48 (8 Feb) 799. 

Letter re St Mary's Training College. CS III/52 (8 Mar) 876–7. 

Oidhche aerach i gConndae Dhoire. CS IV/1 (15 Mar) 4–5; IV/3 (29 Mar) 44–5; IV/4 (5 Apr) 64–6; IV/6 (19 Apr) 102–3; IV/8 (3 May) 142–4. 

Notes and queries 477. IG XII/142 (Jul 1902) 111.

(Ps. Cú Chadhain): Omeath. CS IV/19 (19 Jul) 327; IV/20 (26 Jul) 343–4. 

(Ps. Cineál Eochadh): Lá na bhFear mBuidhe. CS IV/21 (2 Aug) 351–2. 

(Ps. Cú Chadháin): Feis Omeath. CS IV/24 (23 Aug) 406–7. 

(Ps. Cú Chadhain): Dr Starkie on Irish Educational Reform. CS IV/29 (27 
Sep) 483. 

Letter re Tyrone. CS IV/33 (25 Oct) 554.

(Ps. Glaisne Geal an Ghleanna): Beirt Fhear Sáile. United Irishman (22 Nov) 2.

(Ps. Cú Chadhain): Some Hints from the States. CS IV/39 (6 Dec) 655. 

1903

(Ps. Cú Chadhain): Wanted, a history of anglicisation. CS V/10 (16 May) 5. 

Review of Rev M Mullin's Modern Ulster Irish. CS V/13 (6 Jun) 3. 

1904

Seachrán Cairn tSiadhail (Laoide), nótaí ar lgh 154–5.

Review: An Pléidhseam. Irish News (2 May) 6.

1905

Review of Seachrán Cairn tSiadhail. CS VII/15 (24 Jun) 5. 

(gan ainm — uncertain identification): Céilidh Mór na Casga. Irish News (1 May) 8.

Deireadh samhraidh, tús oibre. The Nationist I/2 (28 Sep) 25. 

Na láimh-scríbhne. The Nationist I/3 (5 Oct) 44–5. 

Dóigheanna úra. The Nationist I/6 (26 Oct) 89; I/7 (2 Nov) 105.

Ag an ollsgoil. The Nationist I/9 (16 Nov) 143.

Thart arís ar an bhórd. The Nationist I/10 (23 Nov) 158.

An dlighe. The Nationist I/12 (7 Dec) 187.

Spailpíní fanacha. The Nationist I/13 (14 Dec) 203–4.

1906

Of a certain propensity of ours. CS VII/43 (6 Jan) 8–9. 

1907

(Ps. Cadhan — uncertain identification): Mion-phunann na nGaedheal: An Breallán. Irish News (17 Dec) 2.

1908

Úirchill an Chreagáin. CS X/33 (24 Oct) 5–6. D'fhreagair Lloyd ar X/34 (31 Oct) 7.

1909

(Ps. Cormac): Fliuchán. CS XI/9 (8 May) 12.

The Feis Ceoil and Irish Music. CS XI/12 (29 May) 7; XI/14 (12 Jun) 7. 

(Ps. Séamus Ó C): North and South — the battle for the poles. Sinn Féin 
Daily
(6 Sep) 1. 

(Ps. S Ua C): Litir fá Irisleabhar na Gaedhilge. CS XI/32 (16 Oct) 12. 

1910

1911

Litir re Gleann Fhoichle. CS XIII/17 9 (1 Jul) 9. 

1912

1913

(Ps. An Bodach — uncertain identification): Cuirm Cheoil na n-Gaedheal. IN 11/02/1913 7. Mentions 'Slieve Gallion Braes'  '..as heard on the lowlands of South Derry'.

(Ps. Beirt Bhodach — uncertain identification): Cuirm Cheoil na nGaedheal. IN 26/02/1913 6. Mentions 'The Verdant Braes of Screen'.

1914

1915

1916

1917

1918

1919

1920

1921

1922

1923

1924

"Máire" agus an Piarsach. Sinn Féin (12 Apr).

(Ps. Cormac — uncertain identification): Eagarfhocal. An t-Ultach 2/4 
(Jun) 11.

1925

1926

1927

1928

Why Gleann Con Chadhain is so called. Béaloideas I 58–60. 

1929

1930

(Ps. Cormac — uncertain identification): Tuairimí an Taosaigh Herzog.
An t-Ultach 7/9 (Nov) 3.

1931

Leabhar Cloinne Aodha Buidhe (Ó Donnchadha), nótaí ar lgh 316–7.

(Ps. Cormac — uncertain identification): Árd-Stáisiún Nua an Chraolacháin. 
An t-Ultach 8/4 (May) 3. 

(Ps. S Ó C): Gaedhilg Chonndae Thír Eoghain: scéal. An t-Ultach 8/10
(Dec) 2.

1932

(Ps. SMÓC): Gaedhilg Chonndae Thír-Eoghain: scéal. An t-Ultach 9/2 (Mar) 3. 

(Ps. SÓC): Gaedhilig Thír-Eoghain: dhá scéal. An t-Ultach 9/8 (Oct) 6–7. 

1933

1934

Dhá Chéad de Cheoltaí Uladh (Ó Muirgheasa), nótaí ar lgh 460–6.

Some Place-Names in Co Tyrone. JRSAI LXIV 143–146. 

1935

1936

Lucht Picí agus Sleagh (aistr. ar Keightly). An Gúm.

1937

1938

1939

Ceist agus Freagra (3C). Éigse I 145. 

(Ps. S Ó C): Gaedhilg Chonndae Thír Eoghain: scéal. An t-Ultach 16/4 
(Apr??) 7 (ó Dec 1931). 

1940

An Fáidh Dubh (aistr. ar Carleton). An Gúm.

1941

An tAthair Lorcán Ó Muireadhaigh. An Iodh Morainn I/2 27–30,36.

1942

Cú Uladh. Comhar 1/4 (8/1942) 6

1943

1944

1945

1946

Notes on Place-Names in Derry and Tyrone (commentary on Celtica I 67–73). 
Celtica I 118–40.

1947

1948

1949

1950

Old Lights on Place-Names, New Lights on Maps. JRSAI LXXX 172–86.

1951

Gleanings from Ulster History. Cork University Press.

A preliminary note on some of the nomenclature on the map of S.E. Ulster 
bound up with the maps of the escheated counties, 1610. JRSAI LXXXI 37–43.

1952

A comment on Father Aubrey Gwynn's "The Medieval Province of Armagh". 
County Louth Archaeological Journal XII/4 243–50.

An Chlosach. BUPNS Series 1, I 33–6 (1952–3).

Queries and suggestions. BUPNS Series 1, I 36–7 (1952–3).

Territorial nomenclature between the Bann and Foyle. BUPNS Series 1, I 
58–60 (1952–3); II 11–14 (1954).

1954

The Northern Boundary of the Archdiocese of Armagh. Seanchas Ardmhacha
I 56–64.

1994

Gleanings from Ulster History, eagrán úr, le reámhrádh ó Dhonnchadh Ó Corráin, cunntas ar an teaghlach ó Niamh Whitfield, le caibideal sa bhreis agus le cunntas goirid ar a pháirt san ullmhuchán don Éirghe Amach ón ughdar, agus le memoir, liosta scríbhinní agus innéacsanna ó Nollaig Ó Muraíle. Ballinascreen Historical Society.


Le cinntiú:

Nationality 23/11/1918
Irish Independent 7/1906
Carl Hardebeck(?). An Glór (3 Mar 1945?)


Chan le Séamus seo na cinn seo:

An Glór 1:5 (13/9/1941) 5
An tÉireannach 1:25 (17/11/1934) 5


Tagairtí eile:

anon.: "Notes and News" in BUPNS 2/1 (Spring 1954), lch 1.

Breathnach, Diarmuid agus Mhurchú, Máire Ní: Beathaisnéis a hAon 1882–1982 (1986), lgh 57–9.

D, É Ó: "An Dr. Séamus Ó Ceallaigh" in An tUltach 31/5 (Bealtaine 1954), lch 9.

Duibhín, Ciarán Ó: "An Dr Séamus Ó Ceallaigh" in Irisleabhar Uí Fhiaich (1994), lgh 37–52.

Eoghanach: "Obituary" in Seanchas Ardmhacha 1/2 (1955), lgh 211–4.

Fear Aduaidh: "An Dochtúir Séamus Ó Ceallaigh" in An tUltach 31/3 (Márta 1954), lch 10.

Fiaich, Tomás Ó: "Obituary — An Dr Séamus Ua Ceallaigh" in University Review 1/2 (Autumn 1954), lgh 62–4.

Fiaich, Tomás Ó: "In Memoriam — Séamus Ó Ceallaigh (1879-1954)" in Onoma 5/1 (1954), lgh 126–7.

Muraíle, Nollaig Ó: "Séamus Ó Ceallaigh — a personal memoir" in Gleanings from Ulster History (1994), lgh 130–3

Whitfield, Niamh: "My Grandfather, Dr Séamus Ó Ceallaigh (1879–1954)" in Gleanings from Ulster History (1994), lgh iii–xxx


Ciarán Ó Duibhín
2009/01/05
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