Focal agus Áit — Gaelic Word Geography

These maps are based on the data contained in Heinrich Wagner's Linguistic Atlas and Survey of Irish Dialects (LASID), Volume 1. Scottish data comes from Wagner & Ó Baoill, LASID, Volume 4, Appendix I, and from Seumas Grannd, The Gaelic of Islay. Data from other sources may be taken into account later (see list of references below).

These are not the actual maps from LASID itself, but some generalization is made, and some interpretation added. There is a little latitude involved in this interpretation, and other interpretations are possible, but should not differ greatly.

First, in keeping with the object of these pages, which is more lexical than phonetic, Wagner's detailed phonetic forms are replaced on these maps by a broader transcription, close to normal Gaelic orthography but preserving the main features. This involves some grouping of Wagner's original forms. Second, the boundaries drawn between the groups are not precisely determined by the point data, particularly in Scotland where the LASID points are very sparse. Scottish and Manx forms are rendered on these maps by an Irish-oriented orthography (eg. using acute accents on vowels).

It frequently happens that several surface forms are predictable from a single underlying form, given the general (ie. not lexeme-specific) rules of the dialect. Thus, for example, a written form tráigh would be expected to be pronounced tráig in Munster and trá in Conamara; or written madadh should give mada in Conamara, madu in Ulster, and madaɣ in Scotland. For each map below, we note what appears to be the most widespread underlying written form, while noting in brackets additional forms not predictable from it (such as madra).

Dictionaries referred to on the maps include:
Dinneen: Foclóir Gaedhilge agus Béarla, 1927
Ó Dónaill: Foclóir Gaeilge–Béarla, 1977
Cox: Brigh nam Facal, 1991
Manx: various, including Cregeen, Fockleyr ny Gaelgey, 1835

We begin with a few maps, and intend that others should follow. It is intended to arrange them in groups, according to the geographical patterns which emerge.

open (LASID 1.146) foscailte (oscailte)
smoke (LASID 1.160b) toit; deatach; deathach; smúid; ceo (also ‘poll deataigh’ at map 168 pts 85, 86)
strand (LASID 1.266a) tráigh
trees (LASID 1.248b) cruinn (crainn, cruinnte); craobhan; bildean

Some possibilities for the near future:
madadh/mada/madra 56, 42
Gaeilge vs Gaolainn vs Gaedhilg 114
as Gaeilge vs i nGaedhilg
tagann vs t(h)ig 243a
tchidh/feiceann 123
bheir/tugann 299 (also relative form)
gheibh/faghann 82, 86
ghnídh/deánann 256
móna/mónadh (gs) 167
buaidh(f)/bua(m)
bocsa/bosca
siúcra/siúchra 98
bomaite/moimeinte/nóiméad 234, 235
ní/cha 91, 118(68), 253, 285, 198
teach/tigh/toigh 295a, 147a
crua/cruaidh 201
sa tsaol vs sa saol
aidmhigh
long o, open and closed
oidhreogach
ofhráil, Aifhreann 203
mur/bhur 158
damh/dom 290, 295a
v/w (Limavady)
éigin vs éigint vs eighin(t)eacht 94
thosaigh/thoisigh
cluin vs clois 118(58,88S), 119
eadar vs idir vs iodar 68
pill vs fill (Ox Mountains: pill)
chuaidh vs fuaidh (Ox Mountains: fuaidh)
croidhe vs croí, buidhe vs buí srl; suidhe, luighe, srl: 1 or 2 syllables 148
ceannaichidh vs ceannóchaidh vs ceannóí 15
- ar bith vs aon - (rud, duine,...) 25
gach aon vs gach uile 202
tuaim vs fuaim
ar tháinig vs an dtáinig, ar thug vs an dtug, an ndubhairt vs ar dhubhairt 242
an gcuala (10,11,20,31,32,44,49,55a,78,83,84) vs ar chuala (13,14,17–19,21,27–30,33–40,43,45–48,50–54,59,64–66,(67),68–70,72–77,79–82,85,86) 118
rabh/robh vs raibh 258 (points 33,53,54,57,58,61,62,69,74,76,77,79–81,83–86)
foighid vs foighne 279
fós vs go fóill vs go seadh 169
gabhtha vs gaibhte, toghtha vs toighte
dóibh vs dóib vs daobhtha 259
sóinseál vs sinseál vs athrú 264
gallúnach vs sópa 71
teanga vs teangaidh 70; leaba vs leabaidh 141; teine vs teinidh 164; coill vs coillidh 248
sinn féin vs sinn fhéin vs muid féin vs muid héin 137, 297
muid vs -mid 137
chomh vs go 47
Siobhán vs Siubhan 218 (points 12,28,29,35,37,38,45)
lliom vs liom srl 102, 290 (some points)
toigh vs tigh 147a
cuidiú vs cúnamh vs congnamh 30
faillte vs ailltreacha vs beanna 267
báid vs bádaí 270
éigin vs eighinteach(t) 94
máthair mhór vs seanmháthair vs móiridhe 106
síleann vs ceapann vs is dóigh le 73
nua vs úr 78b
pingin vs pighinn 93
inghean vs nighean 105
gabháil cheoil, srl. 190 — absence of "canadh"
teorainn vs críoch 245
ait — pleasant vs strange
geata vs geafta; scata vs scaifte; lota vs lafta 38, 160a
aig vs ag, air vs ar 38,80
sciatháin vs eiteógaí 43
lacha vs tonnóg 48
beach vs beachóg vs seilleán 49
gleanntaí vs glinntí vs glinn
lámhach vs loscadh vs caitheamh vs scaoileadh 59
bothar vs bealach mór 80
sinn vs muid vs -mid 82
salach vs broghach 84
in innimh vs in ann vs abalta
fosta, freisin, chomh maith, leis 85
fós, go fóill, go seadh 169
gann (N vs n) 89
an iomarca vs barraidheacht 90
synthetic vs analytic verbs 1,15,50,51,82,86,91,118,155
verb relative form 121(28,30–43,45,66)
mún vs fual
do sháith vs do dhóthain 92
siúcra vs siúchra 98
praiseach vs brochan vs leite 99
le h-ithe vs le n-ithe vs le ithe 102
seanmháthair, máthair mhór/chríonna, móraidhe, garmháthair, deasmháthair (mam, maimeó) 106
1 or 2 syll: domhain 109; bodhar 122; ughaim; gabhar 29; leabhar 257; abhainn 280; gabha 194a; siubhal 188,225; tomhas 286; iubhar
abh ([oə] vs [ɑu]): abhrán 190 vs leabhar 257a; abhainn 280b; gabha 194a; gabhar 29; seabhac 215; tabhair; labhair; treabhadh 176
amh ([oə] vs [ɑu]): camhsa 289b vs damhsa 191; gamhain 7; sleamhain 63
adh/agh (aghaidh, adharc, srl.) 117a
mná/mrá, cnoc/croc srl. 110, 245
is iomaidh (s vs sh) 111
sheol, thionntuigh srl (no glide) 121(35,39,40,43)
muineál 116,138(7); cineál 299
sórt vs seort
sheol/cheol; thionntuigh/chionntuigh
amharc vs breathnú vs féachaint vs dearcadh 126
amharc vs radharc vs sealladh vs léargus 127
déideadh srl. 130
druid vs dún 144
nimhneach vs frithir vs tinn 145
dúiseacht vs muscailte 152
nach dtig/dtigeann/dtarann/dtiocann vs nach dtiocfaidh 157
-ad sé/sí/siad vs -adh sé/sí/siad 157(39,48,50)
teineadha, céadhbha, srl. 164(69,71,85,86)
céachta, seisreach 171
thart vs timpeall 179
fataí vs prátaí vs préataí 180
-acht vs -arht 184

Some references for Gaelic word geography

Baoill, Colm Ó: Contributions to a Comparative Study of Ulster Irish and Scottish Gaelic, Queen's University Belfast (1978)
Baoill, Colm Ó: Scottish Gaelic in Wagner's Survey of Irish Dialects, University of Aberdeen (2012)
Dochartaigh, Cathair Ó: Dialects of Ulster Irish, Queen's University Belfast (1987)
Dochartaigh, Cathair Ó (ed.): Survey of the Gaelic dialects of Scotland, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies (1997), 5 volumes
     Volume I: Introductory essays
     Volume II: The phonetic record, items 1–226 (abair–coille)
     Volume III: The phonetic record, items 227–452 (coimheach–gaire)
     Volume IV: The phonetic record, items 453–675 (gairm–òr)
     Volume V: The phonetic record, items 676–895 (pac–ursainn)
Grannd, Seumas: “The Lexical Geography of the Western Isles”, in Scottish Language 14/15 (1995/1996), pp 52–66
Grannd, Seumas: The Gaelic of Islay: a Comparative Study, University of Aberdeen (2000)
Maolalaigh, Roibeard Ó: “Forás na nDeirí Díspeagtha -ean agus -ein i nGaeilge na hAlban”, in Ó Cathain & Ó hUiginn, Béalra (2001), pp 1–43
Scannell, Kevin: Atlas Teangeolaíochta don 21ú hAois (2014)
Wagner, Heinrich: Linguistic Atlas and Survey of Irish Dialects (LASID), Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies.
     Volume 1 (1958, 1981): Introduction and 300 maps
     Volume 2 (1964): The Dialects of Munster
     Volume 3 (1966): The Dialects of Connacht
     (with Colm Ó Baoill) Volume 4 (1969): The Dialects of Ulster and the Isle of Man, with specimens of Scottish Gaelic dialects, and phonetic texts of East Ulster Irish
Anonymous: Linguistic Maps and Linguistic Atlases (2010–)
Anonymous: Dublin Irish — Gaelic dialects you might be curious about (2014–)


Ciarán Ó Duibhín
2017/07/14
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