Map of County Down, showing BARONIES, as used in reporting language statistics in the Censuses 1851–1891.

County Down contains the following baronies:

Lower Iveagh (Upper and Lower halves)
Upper Iveagh (Upper and Lower halves; the Upper half consist of two portions separated by the Lordship of Newry)
Lordship of Newry
Mourne
Kinelarty
Upper Lecale
Lower Lecale
Upper Ards
Lower Ards
Dufferin
Lower Castlereagh
Upper Castlereagh

Map of County Down, showing COUNTY DISTRICTS (urban and rural districts) and DEDs (district electoral divisions), as used in reporting language statistics in the censuses of 1901 and 1911.

County Down contains the following county districts and DEDs:

NEWRY NO 1 RURAL
Clonallan Upper
Clonduff
Crobane
Donaghmore
Drumgath
Glen
Hilltown
Newry Rural
Ouley
Rathfryland
Warrenpoint Rural

NEWRY URBAN
Newry North Urban
Newry South Urban
Newry West Urban

WARRENPOINT URBAN
Warrenpoint Urban

The above comprise part of the Newry Poor Law Union, the rest of which is in County Armagh

BANBRIDGE RURAL
Annaclone
Ardtanagh
Balloolymore
Ballybrick
Ballyward
Banbridge Rural
Crossgar
Dromore Rural
Garvaghy
Gilford
Glaskermore
Leitrim
Loughbrickland
Magherally
Moneyslane
Quilly
Scarva
Skeagh
Tirkelly
Tullylish

BANBRIDGE URBAN
Banbridge East Urban
Banbridge West Urban

DROMORE URBAN
Dromore Urban

The above comprise part of the Banbridge Poor Law Union, the rest of which is in County Armagh

MOIRA RURAL
Ballyleny
Donaghcloney
Kilmore
Magheralin
Moira
Tullylish
Waringstown

The above comprise part of the Lurgan Poor Law Union, the rest of which is in County Armagh

HILLSBOROUGH RURAL
Annahilt
Ballykeel
Ballymacbrennan
Ballyworfy
Blaris
Breda
Dromara
Drumbeg
Drumbo
Glasdrumman
Hillsborough
Killaney
Maze
Ouley
Saintfield

The above comprise part of the Lisburn Poor Law Union, the rest of which is in County Antrim

CASTLEREAGH RURAL
Ballyhackamore
Castlereagh
Dundonald
Holywood Rural

HOLYWOOD URBAN
Holywood Urban

The above comprise part of the Belfast Poor Law Union, the rest of which is in County Antrim

NEWTOWNARDS RURAL
Ballygowan
Ballyhalbert
Ballymaglaff
Ballywalter
Bangor Rural
Carrowdore
Comber
Donaghadee Rural
Grey Abbey
Kilmood
Kircubbin
Moneyreagh
Mount Stewart
Newtownards North
Newtownards South
Tullynakill

BANGOR URBAN
Bangor Urban

DONAGHADEE URBAN
Donaghadee Urban

NEWTOWNARDS URBAN
Newtownards Urban

The above comprise the Newtownards Poor Law Union

DOWNPATRICK RURAL
Ardglass
Ardkeen
Ballynahinch
Castlewellan
Clough
Crossgar
Downpatrick Rural
Downpatrick Urban
Dundrum
Dunmore
Dunsfort
Hollymount
Inch
Killinchy
Killough
Killyleagh
Kilmore
Leggygowan
Portaferry
Quintin
Raholp
Rossconor
Seaforde
Strangford
Tyrella

The above comprise the Downpatrick Poor Law Union

KILKEEL RURAL
Ballykeel
Bryansford
Fofanny
Greencastle
Kilkeel
Killowen
Maghera
Mourne Park
Mullartown
Rosstrevor

NEWCASTLE URBAN
Newcastle Urban

The above comprise the Kilkeel Poor Law Union


Map of County Down, showing DEDs where more than 1% of people aged 40 or over claimed to speak Irish in the 1911 census

Only the 1911 census reported language statistics at as fine a geographical level as the DED. Earlier censuses used the barony level, which is much too coarse to produce an accurate picture, since conditions could vary greatly over the area of a barony.

The Irish speakers in a DED were broken down by age-group, but the age-group boundaries used did not correspond to the boundaries used for the whole population of the DED at any age higher than 40. Consequently, we cannot calculate the percentage of Irish speakers for any older age-group than the over-40s. (The percentage of Irish speakers among the over-60s can be calculated for a larger geographical unit called the dispensary district.)

Brendan Adams has classified the Irish-speaking reported in the 1911 census into (a) revival Irish, learned as a second language in classes, mainly by young people; (b) rediffusion Irish, introduced by immigration of native speakers from outside the area; and (c) survival (or continuity) Irish, inherited in unbroken succession within the area, and necessarily more common among older people. The proportions vary from county to county, but in Down, there are strong signs of revival Irish, eg. in DEDs such as Rossconnor; there are signs of rediffusion in the urban areas of Newry and Warrenpoint; and signs of survival Irish mainly on the north side of the Mourne Mountains. The importance of figures for the oldest possible age-group is that it tends to emphasize survival Irish, which is the type of greatest interest.  However, 40 is hardly a high-enough threshold for reliability.

The DEDs in County Down reporting over 1% of Irish speakers among the over-40s in 1911 were:

Newry South Urban (Newry Urban), 5.6%
Rossconor (Downpatrick Rural), 4.3%
Drumgath (Newry No 1 Rural), 3.7%
Strangford (Downpatrick Rural), 3.5%
Scarva (Banbridge Rural), 3.2%
Newry West Urban (Newry Urban), 2.8%
Ardglass (Downpatrick Rural), 2.5%
Newry North Urban (Newry Urban), 2.4%
Warrenpoint Urban (Warrenpoint Urban), 2.3%
Portaferry (Downpatrick Rural), 2.2%
Bryansford (Kilkeel Rural), 2.2%
Killowen (Kilkeel Rural), 2.1%

Banbridge Urban (Banbridge Urban), 1.8%
Ballykeel (Kilkeel Rural), 1.7%
Dunmore (Downpatrick Rural), 1.6%
Downpatrick Urban (Downpatrick Rural), 1.5%
Clonallon Upper (Newry No 1 Rural), 1.5%
Castlewellan (Downpatrick Rural), 1.4%
Rathfryland (Newry No 1 Rural), 1.4%
Loughbrickland (Banbridge Rural), 1.3%
Glaskermore (Banbridge Rural), 1.3%
Balloolymore (Banbridge Rural), 1.3%
Hilltown (Newry No 1 Rural), 1.3%
Annaclone (Banbridge Rural), 1.2%
Moneyreagh (Newtownards Rural), 1.2%
Leitrim (Banbridge Rural), 1.0%
Newry Rural (Newry No 1 Rural), 1.0%


Ciarán Ó Duibhín
2007/12/24
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